Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 6th World Congress on Biotechnology Crowne Plaza , New Delhi, India.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Mukesh Verma

National Institutes of Health, USA

Keynote: Cancer control by integrating epigenomics and genomics: Are we ready for the prime time?

Time : 10:50-11:10

Conference Series Biotechnology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Mukesh Verma photo
Biography:

Mukesh Verma is a Program Director and Chief in the Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP) of the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH). Before coming to the DCCPS, he was a Program Director in the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), NCI, providing direction in the areas of biomarkers, early detection, risk assessment and prevention of cancer and cancers associated with infectious agents. He holds MSc from Pantnagar University and a PhD from Banaras Hindu University. He has completed his Postdoctoral Research at Howard University and George Washington University and was a Faculty Member at Georgetown University. He has published 157 research articles and reviews and edited three books in cancer epigenetics and epidemiology field.

Abstract:

After completion of the human genome, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with cancer initiation and progression. Most of the studies resulted in SNPs located outside the coding region and the odds ratios were too low to implement in clinical practice. While genome gives information about genome sequence and structure, human epigenome provides functional aspects of the genome. Epigenome-Wide Association Studies (EWAS) provide an opportunity to identify genome wide epigenetic variants which are associated with cancer. Epigenetics defines mechanisms that involve mitotically heritable changes in DNA and chromatin that affect gene expression without altering the nucleotide sequence. Therefore, the functional importance of epigenetic changes lies in their ability to regulate gene expression. One of the current challenges is to understand the regulation of gene function, an activity that depends largely on epigenetic control. Four major steps in epigenetic regulation are promoter methylation, histone acetylation/deacetylation, noncoding mRNA expression and chromatin conformational changes. Through their effects on chromatin structure, epigenetic changes can modulate transcriptional repression, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and suppression of the detrimental effects of repetitive and parasitic DNA sequences on genome integrity. However, there are problems and issues in implementing EWAS to establish an association of epigenetic profiles with cancer. The current status of EWAS, challenges in the field and their potential solutions will be discussed. After completion of the ongoing human epigenome roadmap project and validation of key observation studies in nutrition epigenetics, strategies can be developed for disease control and treatment. Controlling cancer is a priority at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). An update from the Epigenomics Roadmap Program and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) will be presented.

Keynote Forum

Brij M Gandhi

Formerly Adviser to the Government of India, India

Keynote: Biotechnology: Meeting the Needs of a Changing World

Time : 9:30-9:55

Conference Series Biotechnology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Brij M Gandhi photo
Biography:

Brij. M. Gandhi is the Chief Executive Officer and founder of Neo BioMed Services (www.neobiomed.com), a company which provides services and consultancy in health related areas. Dr. Gandhi is also Director of a Mumbai based Stem Cell Company, EmProCell Clinical Research Private Limited, involved in medical practice for regenerative medicine. His basic skills and experiences is in areas of Science Management; Research and Development; Policy and Strategic Planning; Management; Market Strategy; Technology Transfer; Sales and Management; Biodefence Strategies; Institutional Development / regulatory issues related to biopharmaceuticals, pharmaceuticals, biosafety and biosecurity and healthcare areas including stem cell and regenerative medicine. Dr. Gandhi retired in 2006 as Adviser to the Government of India, Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, after serving for over 18 years in various capacities managing promotion and policy related issues in biotechnology related to international collaborations, medical biotechnology, infrastructure development, animals and aquaculture biotechnology. Prior to that Dr. Gandhi had been a Research Scientist at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for about twenty years. Dr. Gandhi continues to serve as Advisor / Director to a number of institutions/pharma and biopharma industries including MNCs and has an experience of over 45 years of active service, as research scientist, science manager, adviser/consultant with over 150 publications. Dr. Gandhi had his Masters in Biochemistry from PAU and Ph.D. in Experimental Medicine from the University of Bergan, Norway. He was trained at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London; National Institutes of Health, Maryland, USA; and University of Bergan, Norway.

Abstract:

  • Track 4: Cancer and Genomics Research Track 5: Genetic Engineering and rDNA Technology Track 8: Animal Biotechnology and Cell Culture
Location: Hall-1
Speaker

Chair

Mukesh Verma

National Institutes of Health, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Kaiser Jamil

Bhagwan Mahavir Medical Research Center(BMMRC), India

Session Introduction

Kaiser Jamil

Bhagwan Mahavir Medical Research Center(BMMRC), India

Title: Leptin gene polymorphisms as biomarkers in Obese breast cancer patients
Speaker
Biography:

Kaiser Jamil during the last decade, as a CSIR-Emeritus Scientist continued her research on projects related to human health and cancer. She has contributed in the field of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer, Leukemia and Head and Neck Cancer. Her work on SNPs of drug metabolizing genes in cancers, unfolds the mechanisms of several important genes and the networking of the proteins associated with these genes elucidated drug-gene interactions. Continuing her work, she is busy elucidating the role of signaling pathways such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and MAPK in HNC and breast cancer.

Abstract:

Background: Obesity can develop adipose tissue stores in the body, quantity of body fat could be a significant source of hundreds of biologically active molecules, “Adipokines”. Adipokines are strong candidates for the link between obesity and risk of breast cancer. Leptin plays an important role in mammary tumor formation. It is secreted by adipose tissue that acts at the brain to regulate energy expenditure and food intake and has an important role in energy balance, insulin pathway and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular link between obesity and breast cancer compared to match controls by addressing the role and impact of Lep-2548G/A polymorphism. Patients & Methods: The present study focuses on the polymorphism leptin gene for variants by screening of this gene in south Indian obese subjects (n=154 obese breast cancer cases and n=145 obese controls). This study followed principles in the Declaration of Helsinki. We utilized PCR- RFLP based assay’s to evaluate the association between the Gln2548Arg polymorphism of the leptin gene and breast cancer risk in case control study. Results & Discussion: The distributions of all three genotypes (GA, GG & AA) in breast cancer cases were 18.8%, 44.8% and 36.4% compared to that of the controls, 33.0%, 29.6% and 37.4%. We found that postmenopausal breast cancer cases showed statistically significant association with GA (rs7799039) genotype when compared with premenopausal women without disease (p=0.001). This difference was between the cases and controls in the Gln2548Arg genotypes. Conclusion: The G2548A had a 1.93 folds increased risk of breast cancer (p=0.007) and combined genotype (GA+AA) showed 2.13 folds increased risk of breast cancer (p=0.005). Obese cases showed that GA genotype was significantly (p=0.0002) associated with breast cancer women. The difference in the distribution of GA genotype between pre- and post-menopausal showed that GA genotype was significantly (p=0.0001) associated with post-menopausal breast cancer women. Our findings suggest that the LEP Gln2548Arg polymorphism may be a useful biomarker associated with the risk of breast cancer women in Indian population.

Speaker
Biography:

B K Malik is the Distinguished Professor of Biotechnology, Sharda University, India. His expertise and experience are in the area of Genomics, Bioinformatics and Nanobiotechnology. He has retired in 2006 as Deputy Director in CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrated Biology (IGIB), Delhi University Campus, Delhi. He was a Consultant at IGIB from 2007-2008. He has teaching and research experience of over 45 years. He has published more than 90 papers in international and national journals.

Abstract:

Pharmacogenomic databases add to the knowledge of diseases and can be used in different ways, example; to analyze mechanisms to retrieve retrospective and prospective information on clinical presentations, SNP’s based clinical trials, diseases phenotypes, long-term prognosis and efficacy of therapeutic options. These tools are now being applied to pharmaceutical research and development with the view to increase the efficiency of the process and the quality of the product. In silico modeling of proteins for cervical cancer, breast cancer, neurological disorders, cancer and infectious diseases were done employing biological databases. Docking studies were done using synthetic and natural ligands. Pharmacogenomics databases were used for modeling of proteins. It may be concluded that the studies shall help in understanding disease process and drug designing with a view to develop low cost drugs for cancer and infectious diseases.

Speaker
Biography:

R Venkateswari has completed her PhD in Cancer Biochemistry from the University of Madras. She is currently working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras since 2014. She has 19 years of teaching experience and 8 years of research experience in Vels University and University of Madras. Her area of research is on antioxidants in cancer chemotherapy, apoptosis, angiogenesis and drug discovery from medicinal plants. She has published papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of reputed journals.

Abstract:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide; it is the fifth most common cancer in men and eighth most common in women. HCC results in 250000 to one million deaths globally per annum. Adriamycin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug used to treat many different forms of cancer but causes side effects by damaging normal cells leading to cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity through the production of free radicals. Quercetin (3, 3´, 4´, 5, 7-Pentahydroxyflavone) is one of the most abundant bio-flavonoids present inedible fruits and vegetables and because of its antioxidant property can reduce the side effects caused by Adriamycin. The present study, aims to investigate the in vitro anti-tumorigenic property of quercetin along with Adriamycin in HepG2 cell lines. We examined the cell viability by MTT assay, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase; marker enzymes like ALP, LDH and the gene and protein expression studies of apoptotic genes like Bcl-xl, Bcl 2, Bak, Apaf, Bax, p53, p21, caspase 3, caspase 9 and PARP in HepG2 cell line. Our study has proved that quercetin is a very effective growth inhibitor when used alone as well when used in combination with Adriamycin in HepG2 cell line. In recent years, research about quercetin has increased both in vitro and in vivo considering it as a promising anti-cancer agent.

Anuj Kumar

Shriram Institute for Industrial Research (SRI), India

Title: Analysis of cancer-testis antigens as molecular drug targets using network pharmacology

Time : 14:20-14:40

Speaker
Biography:

Anuj Kumar has completed his PhD under the supervision of Dr. Amit Sharma, ICGEB, JNU and completed his Postdoctoral studies with Dr. Chetan E. Chitnis, Malaria Biology Group, ICGEB. He is currently working as Head of Molecular Biology Lab in Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi.

Abstract:

Present chemotherapeutic drugs have limited efficacy and sever side effects. Considering the complexity of cancer, an effective strategy is to discover multiple new drug targets. Cancer testis antigens are vital of cancer cell progression and drugs targeting these proteins should have no toxicity. We have performed network analysis of cancer testis antigens and assessed nodes as drug targets based on its position in the network. We have analyzed the protein interaction network of 700 human CT antigens based on available information on STRING 9.1 database. CT antigen network consisted of eight independent components. Four major hubs and two minor were identified that play nodal role in flow of information across the largest network. We have predicted 30 potential drug targets by analyzing topological parameters such as betweenness centrality, cluster coefficient and probable protein complexes. Structural and functional roles of potential drug targets were analyzed. Analysis of CT antigen network enables us to identify a set of candidate proteins that if targeted could be detrimental for cancerous cell without affecting any normal cell. The list of putative proteins is a starting point for experimental validation and further discovery of new anti-cancer drugs.

Amit Roy

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), India

Title: Decreased Camptothecin Sensitivity of Cancer Stem-Like cell Population Correlates with Phosphorylation state of DNA Topoisomerase I

Time : 14:40-15:00

Speaker
Biography:

Amit Roy has completed his PhD in 2009 from CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India and Postdoctoral studies from Aarhus University, Denmark. He is now an Assistant Professor at Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, India. He has published more than 21 research papers in reputed peer-reviewed international journals. His PhD work was highly recognized by Indian National Science Academy (INSA) and he has been awarded the INSA Young Scientist Medal and Professor LSS Kumar Memorial Award in the year 2011. Apart from that, he got many awards including Best Poster Award, Best Presentation Awards, etc.

Abstract:

Cancer stem cells are characterized by indefinite self-renewal potential and capacity to differentiate into progeny cells that constitute the bulk of tumor. Moreover, they are frequently refractory to anti-cancer therapy. The present study addressed the molecular mechanism behind resistance towards the anti-tumor drugs like camptothecin. The CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations of colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2 were analyzed separately for their sensitivities to camptothecin. Cancer stem-like cell subpopulation CD44+ is significantly less sensitive towards treatment with camptothecin than CD44- cell subpopulation. Topoisomerase-I from the two subpopulations were differentially phosphorylated in a manner that appeared to determine the drug sensitivity and activity of the enzyme. This finding was further supported by the fact that phosphorylation of topoisomerase-I in CD44+ cell extract by protein kinase CK2 converted the enzyme to a camptothecin sensitive, more active form mimicking topoisomerase-I in extracts from CD44- cells. Therefore, the reduced activity level and insensitivity towards camptothecin could be ascribed directly to hypo-phosphorylation of topoisomerase-I in the cancer stem-like cell subpopulation. This is the first example of the phosphorylation state of topoisomerase-I modifying both activity and camptothecin sensitivity of the enzyme. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first report of an altered topoisomerase-I activity in cancer stem-like cells relative to progeny cells of a cancer cell line that can explain the camptothecin resistant phenotype of the cancer stem cell subpopulation.

Speaker
Biography:

Amita Pandey has been awarded with Doctor of Philosophy in the year 2000. She has extended her knowledge and skills in scientific field during her Postdoctoral Research in the field of Microbiology working in Neurospora crassa with Professor Louise Glass and later in the field of Molecular Neuroscience working in C. elegans with Professor Gian Garriga at University of California, Berkeley. Her research work has been published in various internationally reputed journals and she has contributed books and book chapters.

Abstract:

The final structure and connectivity of the nervous system depends upon the accurate guidance of axons and their cell bodies through complex environments during the process of development. Failure to achieve correct connectivity results in a dysfunctional nervous system which may be associated with disorders such as Autism and Down’s syndrome. An understanding of how neural connectivity is established helps to improve treatment of nervous system disorders. The leading edge of a cell or axon is a highly dynamic structure called the growth cone (GC). The process of GC guidance is intricately orchestrated and regulated by a plethora of extracellular and intracellular molecules along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis and anterior-posterior (AP) axis. UNC-6 was the first guidance clue discovered in C. elegans guiding GCs along the DV axis of the worm. Later the mammalian homolog Netrin was identified to perform similar function in vertebrates. UNC-6/Netrin serves as a bi-functional cue attracting the GCs along DV (Dorsal/Ventral) axis through UNC-40/DCC and repelling GCs through UNC-5/UNC5 receptors. Another highly conserved guidance system working along the DV axis includes SLT-1/Slt acting though SAX-3/Robo receptors. The molecules acting in the AP guidance are few including Wnts are set of secreted glycoproteins, which steer GCs along the AP through frizzled receptor. The ligand receptor complex at the membrane transduces the signal to bring about reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton which steers the GCs either towards or away from the cues. My research work is focused on a cytoplasmic actin-binding scaffolding protein, UNC-53 required for GC migrations along the AP axis. Its mammalian homologs, the Neuron Navigators (NAVs) are also known to function in nervous system development. The unc-53 (uncoordinated) is required for GC migrations along the AP axis in C. elegans. This study will primarily focus on first finding novel molecular collaborators of UNC-53 and mechanism of its action.

Speaker
Biography:

Janine Aparecida Correia Duraes Gandra has graduated in Biology and has attended the Master’s degree in Industrial Biotechnology at State University of Montes Claros. As Biologist, she has worked on the Microbiological Quality Control at Novo Nordisk Pharmaceutical Production in Brazil for over 10 years focusing on the following topics: Equipment qualification, validation of analytical methods, preparation of standard operational procedures, training in analytical methods, identification of microorganisms using traditional and rapid methods, sterilization processes. She is a Member of the Validation and Change Control Committee. Currently, she is working in ALP (Achromobacter lyticus protease) production.

Abstract:

The production of recombinant proteins in the fermentation process in biotechnology industry can be performed using genetically modified organism derived from Escherichia coli K12. The main health and safety concern on the use of GMOs (Genetically Modified Organism) is related to the potential of the gene transfers to other organisms, toxicity, inducing resistance to antibiotics and compromise biodiversity. The accidental release of GMOs in the recent years has increased the concern with safety and the need for methods able to detect them. Thus, policies of monitoring for disposal to the environment of bacterial carrying plasmids or other genetically modified organisms are required. In our research we associate the methods of membrane filtration and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as tools for detection and quantification of E. coli K12 in downstream stages and in the final product of a fermentation process. Through contamination and recovery experiments it was possible to determine the detection limit for cells in CFU/mL following the membrane filtration method (1 CFU/mL). PCR reactions performed using E. coli presumptive identification colonies have proved that it is possible to detect E. coli K12 marker genes. Efforts have been undertaken to standardize and validate molecular methodologies in our laboratory among which PCR and more recently real-time PCR.

Rekha Sharma

National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, India

Title: Genetic diversity estimates point to immediate efforts for conserving the endangered Tibetan sheep of India

Time : 15:40-16:00

Speaker
Biography:

Rekha Sharma has completed her PhD from National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), India in 1998. She is the Principal Scientist at NBAGR, a premier organization involved in characterization, conservation and utilization of Animal Genetic Resources. She has published more than 55 papers in reputed journals on molecular characterization of AnGR with neutral and functional markers.

Abstract:

Tibetan sheep is distributed in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. However, their population has been decreasing drastically in recent past. In Sikkim state these are confined to north district of Sikkim and at present are only 215 in number. Tibetan sheep have adapted themselves in the harsh climate and difficult terrains in their home tracts and may possess unrecognized beneficial genetic variation. These are an important reservoir of non-exploited genetic resources. Hence, the aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic intra-breed variability of Tibetan sheep using 25 microsatellite markers so as to provide useful information for their conservation. All microsatellites were polymorphic and a total of 148 alleles were detected across these loci. The observed number of alleles across all the loci was more than the effective number of alleles and ranged from 3 (BM6506) to 11 (BM6526) with 5.920±0.387 mean number of alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was less than expected heterozygosity. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.150 (BM1314) to 0.9 (OarCP20) with an overall mean of 0.473±0.044 and 0.329 (BM8125) to 0.885 (BM6526) with an overall mean 0.672±0.030 respectively. The lower heterozygosity pointed towards slower genetic diversity in the population. Four microsatellites (CSRD247, BM1314, OarJMP08 and BM6526) showed significant (p<0.05) departures from the Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the population. The estimate of heterozygote deficiency varied from -0.443 (OarCP20) to 0.668 (OarFCB128) with a mean positive valves of 0.302±0.057. More than 30% deficiency of heterozygotes exists in population which can mainly be attributed to the inbreeding due to very small population size. Thus, the genetic analysis based on selected microsatellite markers indicated reduced genetic variability of Tibetan population. In view of the declining population of Tibetan sheep in the breeding tract, need of the hour is immediate scientific management of the population so as to increase the population hand in hand with retaining the founder alleles to the maximum possible extent.

Anuradha Bhardwaj

ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, India

Title: Expression and characterization of eCG recombinant protein in Sf cell lysate

Time : Page 2 Group Photo 10:55-11:00 Coffee Break 11:00-

Speaker
Biography:

Anuradha Bhardwaj has completed her PhD from ICAR-NDRI in Animal Biotechnology Discipline and she is currently working as a Scientist (Biotechnology-Animal Sciences) at National Research Centre on Equines (ICAR), India.

Abstract:

The family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones (LH, FSH, TSH, CG, Inhibins) play imperative role in reproduction. These hormones are composed of two dissimilar subunits: Alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is generally common to all glycoprotein hormones, however; the beta subunit is species specific and accountable for receptor binding specificity. In the present study, the eCG gene was synthesized with signal sequence of beta and C-terminus of alpha subunits together and amplified with polymerase chain reaction with specific primer pairs. The amplified fragment (~700 bp) was gel purified and successfully cloned in pUC57 cloning vector. The cloned construct got confirmed with sequencing and sub-cloned in pIX 4.0 vector for expression in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cell lysate. Expression was carried out as per recommended protocol of EasyXpress® Insect Cell Protein Synthesis kit. Recombinant protein of ~27 kDa was analyzed in SDS PAGE and characterized by ELISA. This study paves way for new generation of cell free expression and purification recombinant hormones for further study.

Sukanta Mondal

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore

Title: Selection of developmentally competent ovine oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) staining improves blastocyst development rate

Time : Page 3 16:40-17:00

Speaker
Biography:

S Mondal has completed his PhD in 2006 from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly and Postdoctoral studies from Laval University, Canada in 2010. He is working as Principal Scientist at NIANP, Bangalore. He has done pioneering and path breaking contributions in reproductive genomics of buffalo and sheep. He has published over 45 papers in various national and international journals of repute and delivered invited lectures in conferences throughout the country. He is the Associate Editor of journals viz., American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Asian Journal of Biotechnology, Asian Journal of Cell Biology, Current Research in Poultry Science, Biotechnology etc.

Abstract:

The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining evaluates the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH); the activity of this enzyme is greatest in growing oocytes, but it declines as oocytes mature. The objective of our study was to increase the efficiency of sheep blastocyst production after in vitro maturation/fertilization (IVM/IVF) by oocyte selection before maturation. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from surface follicles (2-6 mm diameter) of sheep ovaries in aspiration media [TCM-199, Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.3% BSA, heparin (10 μg per ml) and gentamicin (10 μ per ml). Only oocytes having more than 5 layers of cumulus cells and granular homogenous ooplasm were exposed to BCB stain diluted in DPBS (DPBS with 0.4% BSA) for 90 min at 38.5o C in a humidified air atmosphere; those with or without blue coloration of the cytoplasm were designated as BCB+ or BCB-, respectively. The oocytes were exposed to 13, 26 and 39 µM BCB. The maturation and cleavage rate of 13 μM (n=103), 26 μM (n=125) and 39 μM (n=97) BCB+ sheep oocytes was higher than those in 13 μM (n=103), 26 μM (n=125) and 39 μM (n=97) BCB-oocytes and control group (n=92). The blastocyst development rate of 26 and 39 μM BCB+ oocytes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in 26 and 39 μM BCB- oocytes suggesting that the staining of sheep cumulus oocyte complexes with BCB before in vitro maturation may be used to select developmentally competent oocytes for IVF.

Sonika Ahlawat

National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, India

Title: Association analysis of novel SNPs in BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes with reproductive traits in goats

Time : 17:00-17:20

Speaker
Biography:

Sonika Ahlawat is working as a Scientist in National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, India. She has published more than 15 research articles in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Being a high prolific and early maturing breed, Black Bengal goats are interesting genetic materials to underpin the genetic mechanism of prolificacy and sexual precocity. In the present study, novel SNPs in BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes were genotyped to evaluate their association with the reproductive traits. PCR-RFLP and tetra primer ARMS-PCR based protocols were developed for genotyping six novel SNPs viz., T (-242) C in BMPR1B, G735A and C808G in BMP15 and C818T, A959C and G1189A in GDF9. Linear mixed model for association of these SNPs with litter size and linear fix model for other traits was employed. The effect of season and parity was highly significant (p≤0.01) on litter size but effect varied with change in locus combination. However, effect of genotype and year of birth was non-significant on litter size. For age at first heat, age at first service and age at first kidding, effect of year of birth and genotype was found non-significant. The effect of season of kidding was found non-significant on age at first heat and age at first service but significant (p≤0.05) on age at first kidding for all loci except combined genotype. The regression of age at sexual maturity on age at first service and regression of age at first service on age at first kidding was highly significant (P≤0.01) indicating the influence of preceding reproductive events on subsequent ones. Further studies with more number of breeds and animals exploring association of these novel SNPs with reproductive traits might be fruitful.

Lokesh Gautam

College of Veterinary and Animal Science, India

Title: Microsatellite markers studies for genetic characterisation of Bikaneri camel

Time : 17:20-17:40

Speaker
Biography:

Lokesh Gautam is currently working as an Assistant Professor as well as pursuing his PhD in the Department of Animal Genetics & Breeding. He has completed his from Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Science, India. He has served in Rajasthan Dairy Sector for 13 years and has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Genetic variation in Bikaneri camel was analyzed using eleven microsatellite primers. A total of eleven microsatellite primers were tested for amplification on a panel of 30 unrelated camels. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed for amplification of eleven microsatellite loci. The PCR amplified products were separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis. The gel was stained with silver nitrate procedure. The allele frequency, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were observed. Six out of eleven (54%) microsatellite primer pairs gave a polymorphic band. The number of alleles ranged from two to five in Bikaneri camel for different microsatellite markers. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.289 (VOLP -08) to (VOLP-10) and the polymorphic information content values in camel ranged from 0.267 (VOLP) to 0.639 (VOLP-10). On the basis of all over observation, it was revealed that microsatellite primers were found to be polymorphic with good polymorphic information content. Hence they can be used for further genetic studies.

Sophia Inbaraj

ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Portblair, India

Title: Quantitative expression of hepatic Toll-Like Receptor 1–10 mRNA in Osmanabadi goats during different climatic stresses

Time : 17:40-18:00

Speaker
Biography:

Sophia Inbaraj has completed her Master’s degree with specialization in Veterinary Bacteriology, IVRI, Izatnagar. Currently, she is working as a Scientist in ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair.

Abstract:

A study was conducted to establish the impact of heat stress, nutritional stress and combined stresses (heat and nutritional) on TLR genes expression in liver samples of Osmanabadi goats. Twenty four adult Osmanabadi male goats (average body weight 16.0 kg) were divided into four groups viz., C (n=6; control), HS (n=6; heat stress), NS (n=6; nutritional stress) and CS (n=6; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. C and HS goats had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS goats were under restricted feed (30% intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS goats were exposed to solar radiation for six hours a day between 10:00 hours to 16:00 hours to induce heat stress. The animals were slaughtered at the end of study and their liver samples were collected for different TLR gene expression. Except TLR5 and TLR9, higher expression of all other TLR receptors in liver was observed in HS group. Animals exposed to CS expressed high amount of TLR5 in liver. Although higher expression of TLR9 was obtained in all stress groups (HS, NS and CS), than control group, still the expression did not varied between the stress groups. The higher expression of majority of the TLR gene in HS groups indicates that when nutrition is not compromised heat stressed animals were able to sustain their immune functions. This is the first report on impact of different climatic stress on TLR gene expression in large animals and these results could serve as reliable baseline information for future research efforts pertaining to impact of climate change on immune response in livestock species.

Rashmi Ambasta

Delhi Technological University,India

Title: Molecular target profile analysis of luteolin and lupeol for colon cancer Therapy

Time : 18:00-18:20

Speaker
Biography:

Rashmi K Ambasta is working as a Principal Investigator and SERB-DST Scientist at Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University. She has finished her Master’s degree from the Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University. She has qualified national level exam for CSIR-JRF, ICMR-JRF, and ASRB-LS. She has joined J W Goethe University for her PhD in Frankfurt Germany. She has finished her PhD in 2004 and joined Boston, MA, USA for her two Postdoctoral training sponsored by NIH. She joined the faculty position at VIT, Vellore, India as an Assistant Professor and was promoted to Associate Professor. She was awarded with DST-Young Scientist Award under fast track scheme. Her research interest is in the field of Cancer Drug Targeting. She has published six book chapters, several conference abstracts and more than 25 articles (cumulative IF=60; cumulative citation 663; h index=8) in well reputed journals. She has been an invited speaker at Universities like BHU, Varanasi, IIT- Delhi, AIIMS-Delhi, and JMI-Delhi. She is a life member of SBTI, SNCI and member of IACR.

Abstract:

Colon cancer is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide and several anti-cancer drugs are known for ages but still new therapeutical research is ongoing to target the anti-cancer drug at tumour specific site with lesser side effect. We set out to investigate comparative role of biomolecules like luteolin, and lupeol in cancer therapy via its anti-angiogenic mechanism. We have compared the role of anti-angiogenic drug via chick chorio allantoic membrane assay, colon cancer cell line proliferation ability and cell migration assay. Upon comparing the anti-angiogenic ability luteolin followed by lupeol has been found to be the best in inhibiting angiogenesis, cell proliferation ability and cell migration ability. Colon tumour has been analyzed for FISH and immunohistochemistry. Expression of VEGF, EGFR, FGFR has been analyzed. VEGF and FGFR are overexpressed in colon tumour compared to EGFR. Hence effect of biomolecule luteolin is analyzed in colon cancer cell line via western blotting for these signaling pathway dissections. Therefore, it can be concluded that luteolin is the best screened anti-cancerous drug which targets several downstream targets of VEGF and FGF pathway.

Vishnu Kumar

Rajasthan University of Veterinary & Animal Science, India

Title: Allele mining in DRB3.2 gene and its association with mastitis tolerance and susceptibility in crossbred cattle

Time : 18:20-18:40

Speaker
Biography:

Vishnu Kumar is presently working as an Assistant Professor in Animal Genetics & Breeding Department. He has completed his Master’s degree from IVRI, Izatnagar through ICAR JRF. He has also obtained ICAR SRF & DST INSPIRE fellowship. He has more than 10 publications.

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to explore the new allelic variants of DRB3.2 and to find out their association with mastitis tolerance and susceptibility. A total of 100 lactating crossbred cattle maintained at Cattle and Buffalo Farm, IVRI, Izatnagar were selected randomly. All the selected animals were screened by CMT as well as SCC and classified into two groups’ viz., mastitis tolerant and mastitis susceptible. DNA was isolated from collected blood samples. Isolated DNA having good quality and purity was used for further analysis. By using previously reported primers, amplification of 284 bp region of DRB3.2 was carried out by standard PCR protocol at specific annealing temperature. Denaturing PAGE of PCR product was carried out and SSCP patterns were visualized by silver staining. Genotyping of each animal was performed manually and two types of genotypes viz., AA and AB were determined by SSCP analysis. Genotype and gene frequency for both genotypes and alleles were estimated. Statistical analysis was done by using two way classification interaction model for SCC and logistic regression for mastitis incidence. PCR products having amplified fragment of exon 2 of DRB3 gene were sent for sequencing. In the present study, genotype AB was found predominant in mastitis tolerant animals, whereas allele A was predominant in all animals. Analysis of variance for SCC revealed that both DRB3.2 genotypes had significant effect on SCC. Logistic regression showed that genotype AA was highly significant for mastitis incidence in comparison to genotype AB. Two SNPs in allele A and four SNPs in allele B were detected in DRB3.2 gene by sequence analysis and these mutations changed amino acid sequences. Thus, it can be concluded that exon 2 of DRB3 gene was found polymorphic in crossbred cattle with two new alleles associated with mastitis.

  • Track-6: Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular biology
Location: Hall-2
Speaker

Chair

Vijayalakshmi Venkatesan

National Institute of Nutrition, India

Speaker

Co-Chair

Saumya Pandey

Ajanta Hospital and IVF Centre, India

Session Introduction

Arumugam Nagaraja

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India

Title: Characterization of guava genotypes using RAPD markers

Time : 13:20-13:40

Speaker
Biography:

Arumugam Nagaraja has completed his Master’s degree from Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam and PhD from IARI. He is the Senior Scientist in Fruit Science at the Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi. His major area of research is Guava and Mango Improvement. He has published 10 research papers in reputed national and international journals. He is also a Faculty of Postgraduate School IARI, New Delhi and engaged in Postgraduate teaching.

Abstract:

Genetic diversity among 24 genotypes (22 varieties/collection belonging to Psidium guajava and 2 other species) of guava were characterized using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Out of 29 RAPD primers used, 10 were found to be monomorphic and 19 showed polymorphism among guava genotypes. Number of alleles detected using polymorphic RAPD primer ranged between 2 (OPA13A) to 11 (OPF02A) with an average of 6 amplicons/primer. High rate of polymorphism was observed reasonably for OPF02A, OPH19A, OPF13A, OPA13A and OPB13A primers. The PIC value ranged from 0.49-0.89 indicates that the markers were quite informative. Based on molecular analysis, Sasri Selection and Sasni Selection were grouped with Allahabad Safeda. Tamil Nadu Selection and Lalit genotypes formed a group at 50% similarity. Psidum freidrichsthalianum formed a group with black guava. Molecular analysis showed a high degree of variation among analyzed guava genotypes indicating an important source of genetic diversity that can be used in the guava improvement program.

Debabrata Mandal

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, India

Title: Different mechanism of reading the isoleucine codon in three domains of life

Time : 13:40-14:00

Speaker
Biography:

Debabrata Mandal has completed his PhD from Bose Institute, India. He has completed his Postdoctoral studies from Department of Biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. He is currently an Assistant Professor at National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-Hajipur, India. His research group is currently working on novel drug targets and their underlying mechanism in anti-leishmanial therapy.

Abstract:

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) read codons of mRNA as a triplet and converts the message from nucleic acid to proteins. The universal genetic code consists of 64 triplets of which 61 represent different amino acids. The number of tRNA species is always fewer than the 61 codons suggesting that some tRNAs must read more than one codon. This ability is due to the wobble hypothesis where base 34 of tRNA can pair with multiple bases. Isoleucine is the only amino acid which is represented by 3 codons AUC, AUU and AUA. There are different mechanisms of reading the AUA codon in eukaryotes and bacteria. Eukaryotes contain a tRNAIle with the anticodon ΨAΨ (Ψ=pseudouridine) which preferably read the isoleucine codon AUA. Bacteria use a tRNAIle with the anticodon LAU (L=lysidine). Lysidine is a modified cytidine in which the wobble base cytidine is chemically modified by amino acid lysine. Using biochemical and mass spectrometric analysis, we found that archaea uses agmatine (decaroxylated arginine) modified cytidine wobble base to read the codon AUA. The modification is known as agmatidine and it is very similar to lysidine. This modification prevents global mistranslation as the modified tRNA reads only the AUA codon without reading the AUG codon of methionone. The enzymes responsible for this modification are very similar in their function but different in structure indicating that they have evoled throgh convergent evolution. Essentiality of these modification enzymes and their absence in eukaryotes make them attractive drug targets.

Speaker
Biography:

Vijayalakshmi V has completed her PhD in Biochemistry (National Institute of Nutrition) awarded from Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. She has pursued Postdoctorate from CCMB followed by induction as a Senior Faculty in Liver Research Centre at Hyderabad, India. In 2002, she was recruited as Assistant Director at National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR) and initiated the area of Stem Cell Research and she is currently Scientist F. She has more than 60 papers in peer reviewed journals and has been in the Advisory Board of several stem cell centers in India. She has also received the prestigious Biomedical Fellowship from Government of India to visit Karolinska Institute, Sweden.

Abstract:

Early intrauterine nutritional insult combined with lifestyle changes have been well documented to increase the risk of adiposity and associated chronic diseases (CDs) during adulthood. Indeed, inflammation in visceral adipose depot has been pinned down as the major confounding factor underlining the CDs which include insulin resistance (IR), obesity, T2 diabetes, CVD, hypertension etc., having significant impact at global scenario. In this context, development of model systems (in vitro and in vivo) have immensely helped to bridge the gap towards understanding the pathophysiology of CDs, yet the mechanisms are still obscure. The present study has been explored the feasibility of BM-MSCs as an in vitro model to delineate the mechanisms underlying folic acid deficiency in situ vis a vis to understand the developmental vs. nutritional programming with reference to adipogenesis. Our findings are in agreement with the reported in vivo data to support for an altered adipogenesis with up-regulated inflammation. We have demonstrated for an induction in visceral adipocity with increase in triglyceride levels and mRNA of visfatin and leptin. Further, inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress were all significantly increased as compared to controls (MNC). This study forms the basis to report for the first time, application of BM-MSCs as an in vitro model system to study nutritional programming (deficiency/over nutrition) to recreate physiological milieu akin to intrauterine conditions.

Speaker
Biography:

Saumya Pandey is a reputed Faculty/Scientist currently working as Dy. Director (Academics, Clinical Research and Publications/Grants) at Ajanta Hospital and IVF Centre, India (formerly Lecturer (Research Cell), Department of Research, Amity University, India). She earned her Master’s degree (Biochemistry) and PhD (Life Sciences) from India and completed her Postdoctoral Fellowship (Biochemistry Molecular Biology) at University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. She has approximately 8 years of research experience, 56 academic credits from Graduate Schools of Biomedical Sciences, UTMB, Galveston, TX/Creighton University, Omaha, NE, USA. She has authored 19 peer-reviewed publications (17 as lead author) in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including restenosis, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in United States of America. Targeting Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd) signaling and Calcium-activated Potassium (KCa) Channels in deciphering the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying restenosis in Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients is emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy in management/prevention of CVD. My pilot study aimed to investigate the role of Fzd receptors and KCa channels in human Internal Mammary Artery and Saphenous Vein-derived Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) from CABG surgery patients of North American ethnicity. Primary human VSMCs were isolated from IMAs and SVs derived from CABG surgery patients using Collagenase-IV enzymatic digestion method. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. RNA was extracted from hVSMCs (passages P3-P7) using Trizol method. Fzd and KCa mRNA transcripts were identified by semi-quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction followed by 2% Agarose gel electrophoresis. Whole cell patch clamp electrophysiological recordings were conducted for KCa currents. Mean age of CABG surgery patients (N=9) was 60.3 years (S.D±6.5 years). Receptor studies demonstrated the expression of Fzd1, Fzd2 and Fzd5 mRNA transcripts in IMA and SV-derived hVSMCs. However, BKCa (broad conductance), IKCa (intermediate conductance) and SKCa (small conductance) mRNA transcripts and KCa currents were not expressed/detected in hVSMCs; beta-actin was used as internal control. My preliminary data implicates the public health impact of Wnt-Frizzled signaling in restenosis. Future cell/molecular biology and electrophysiology-based studies targeting Fzd receptors and KCa channels may aid in the development of cost-effective predictive biomarkers for cardiovascular susceptible populations.

Speaker
Biography:

Jagdish Singh has completed his PhD from Punjabi University Patiala. He is currently working as Associate Professor in the Department of Biotechnology, Mata Gujri College, Punjab, India. He has published 16 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as Head of the Department. He has supervised more than 50 research projects of MSc students.

Abstract:

Cellulase is one of most useful enzymes in industry. In the present work, cross linked cellulase enzyme aggregates (CLEA) was synthesized. The influence of several factors on the CLEA synthesis including the pH value, time, Ca2+ concentration and incubation time was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). CLEA-1 and CLEA-II was synthesized with ethanol and acetone desolvation technique respectively. The residual enzyme activity of CLEA was 21.61% and 78.38% with ethanol and acetone respectively. CLEA has better pH and temperature stability than free enzyme. CLEA particles have lower Km value. For characterizing the CLEA, Zeta sizer and FT-IR was employed. Average diameter of CLEA-I and II was 2575 and 4876 nm respectively, whereas average diameter of free enzyme was 770.4 nm.

Sanjeev Kumar Mahto

Banaras Hindu University(IIT), India

Title:

Time : 15:00-15:20

Speaker
Biography:

Sanjeev Kumar Mahto has completed his PhD from Kongju National University, Republic of Korea and Postdoctoral studies from Technion-Israel Institute of Technology School of Biomedical Engineering, Israel and University of Calgary in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Canada. He is the Faculty of the School of Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, a premier Technological Institution of the Government of India and an Institute of the National importance. He has been granted one US and European patent, published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering.

Abstract:

Over the past few decades, microfluidic technology has laid the foundation for developing advanced and importantly more physiologically-realistic in vitro models for manipulating and analyzing cellular behaviors at both the tissue-specific and single-cell levels. Microfluidic devices have attracted much attention for cell-based studies because of their ability to use small quantities of cells and reagents, precisely control spatial and temporal microenvironments and facilitate high-resolution visualization of cellular events in real-time. In this presentation, I will demonstrate the microfluidic-based analytical models, micro-fabrication methods, experimental validations and on-chip monitoring of cellular responses for a diverse set of biological studies namely nano toxicological analysis, synapse formation, surfactant secretion in the lung alveoli and neural activity in the brain. Multi compartmented microfluidic platforms are fabricated for analyzing cytotoxic effects of quantum dots under physiologically relevant conditions. Notably, such devices show their potential applications in continuous real-time monitoring of neuronal processes involved in synapse formation. The role of flow-induced shear stress on the mechanisms regulating surfactant secretion in pulmonary alveolar type II epithelial cells is also investigated using microfluidic models. Furthermore, a microfluidic model of neural tissue that closely mimics the realistic and complex three-dimensional (3D) brain’s cyto-architecture is developed for measuring activity of the neurons in a 3D environment following site-specific chemical treatment of a brain-like neural network. Altogether, such integrated microfluidic platforms that combine bio-realistic growth conditions and optical access hold tremendous potential for high-throughput toxicity testing, tissue engineering and establishing mechanistic insights into respiratory physiology and neurodegenerative diseases.

Speaker
Biography:

Rinkoo D Gupta has completed her PhD from Banaras Hindu University and Postdoctoral studies from Weizmann Institute of Sciences, Israel. She is working as an Assistant Professor in South Asian University, New Delhi, an international university established by SAARC nations. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals including Nature Chemical Biology and Nature Methods. Her area of current research is to understand the molecular evolution of enzymes, protein engineering and drug discoveries.

Abstract:

Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a lactonase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in mice. However in human, there is no ascorbic acid biosynthesis, the expression of SMP30 has been reported in liver, kidney and other tissues. Hence, to study the role of SMP30 in human is an area of intensive research. SMP30 is also known as Regucalcin due to its involvement in calcium homeostasis. Recent studies showed its association in organophosphate hydrolysis including nerve agents like sarin and soman. Since SMP30 is also involved in calcium homeostasis, we are investigating the metal-based substrate specificities shown by SMP30. Studying the enzymatic activities and metal-based substrate specificities of SMP30 in the presence of different divalent cations may be a useful approach for discovering the precise physiological role in human. Therefore, cDNA of mouse liver SMP30 was cloned in bacterial expression vector and sequence verified. The protein was overexpressed with 6xHis tag in E. coli (BL21) cells and purified for biochemical characterization. We used a bacterial codon-optimized synthetic gene to study the human SMP30. Purified proteins were used to measure the activities in the presence of different metals like Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Metal specificities were examined with several substrates like phenyl acetate, naphthyl acetate, parathiol, paraoxon and thiobutyrolacton. SMP30 shows highest esterase activity in the presence of Co2+ as compare to other divalent cations.

Speaker
Biography:

Kalyani Khanra has completed her PhD from Vidyasagar University. She is a Postdoctoral Fellow in a UGC-DAE sponsored project performing research at Department of Biotechnology, Panskura Banamali College. She has published 18 research papers in international journals and published two book chapters. She is also Co-applicant of two national patents

Abstract:

The present study aimed at determining the effect of alkylating and oxidative stress inducing agents on a newly identified variant of DNA polymerase beta (polβ208-304) specific for ovarian cancer. Polβ208-304 has deletion of exons 11-13 which lies in catalytic part of enzyme. We compared the effect of these chemicals on HeLa cells and HeLa cells stably transfected with this variant cloned into in pcDNAI/neo vector by MTT assay, colony forming assay and apoptosis. Polβ208-304 cells exhibit greater sensitivity to alkylating agent and less sensitivity towards H2O2 and UV when compared with HeLa cells alone. It has also been shown that cell death in Polβ208-304 transfected HeLa cells is mediated by the caspase-9 cascade. The exon-11 have nucleotidyl selection activity, exon-12 and 13 have dNTPs selection activity. Hence deletion of this part may affect polymerizing activity although single strand binding and double strand binding activity may remain same. Missing of this part may adversely affect catalytic activity of DNA polymerase beta hence this variant may act as a dominant negative mutant. This would represent a clinical significance if translated into clinical setting because resistance to radiation or chemo during the relapse of the disease could be potentially overcome by this approach.

Speaker
Biography:

Kalyani Khanra has completed her PhD from Vidyasagar University. She is a Postdoctoral Fellow in a UGC-DAE sponsored project performing research at Department of Biotechnology, Panskura Banamali College. She has published 18 research papers in international journals and published two book chapters. She is also Co-applicant of two national patents

Abstract:

The present study aimed at determining the effect of alkylating and oxidative stress inducing agents on a newly identified variant of DNA polymerase beta (polβ208-304) specific for ovarian cancer. Polβ208-304 has deletion of exons 11-13 which lies in catalytic part of enzyme. We compared the effect of these chemicals on HeLa cells and HeLa cells stably transfected with this variant cloned into in pcDNAI/neo vector by MTT assay, colony forming assay and apoptosis. Polβ208-304 cells exhibit greater sensitivity to alkylating agent and less sensitivity towards H2O2 and UV when compared with HeLa cells alone. It has also been shown that cell death in Polβ208-304 transfected HeLa cells is mediated by the caspase-9 cascade. The exon-11 have nucleotidyl selection activity, exon-12 and 13 have dNTPs selection activity. Hence deletion of this part may affect polymerizing activity although single strand binding and double strand binding activity may remain same. Missing of this part may adversely affect catalytic activity of DNA polymerase beta hence this variant may act as a dominant negative mutant. This would represent a clinical significance if translated into clinical setting because resistance to radiation or chemo during the relapse of the disease could be potentially overcome by this approach.

Speaker
Biography:

Somdeb Bose Dasgupta has done his PhD in 2009, from Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India and Postdoctoral studies at Biozentrum, University of Basel, Switzerland under the supervision of Prof. Jean Pieters. He has presently moved back to India as an Assistant Professor at School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU). Owing to his work on varied fields in his doctoral and post-doctoral studies, he has published several research papers. One of them lies in understanding the role of coronin 1 in cognition and behaviour and is discussed here.

Abstract:

Cognitive and behavioral disorders are thought to be a result of neuronal dysfunction but the underlying molecular defects remain largely unknown. The cAMP/Protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is known to be a key factor regulating neuronal behaviour. Genetic associations with neurobehavioral dysfunction include a chromosome region containing the gene coding for coronin 1. Our studies show that coronin 1, which was identified as a lymphocyte specific protein important for mycobacterial survival in macrophages as well as naïve T cell survival is also expressed in excitatory neurons of the brain. Interestingly, deficiency of coronin 1 results in severe behavioral abnormalities such as reduced socialization and anxiety, increased aggression and disabilities in learning. Electrophysiological studies show that coronin 1 regulates cAMP/PKA dependent synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses. Specifically, protein kinase A-dependent cortico-lateral amygdalary long‐term potentiation was completely absent in coronin 1‐deficient mice. The coronin 1-mediated cAMP/PKA response was dependent on the stimulus dependent interaction of coronin 1 with the stimulatory G alpha subunit (Gαs). Deletion of coronin 1 or expression of coronin 1 mutants incapable of interacting with Gαs, fails to stimulate cAMP signaling. In vivo infusion of a membrane–permeable cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP into coronin 1-deficient mice brain effectively rescues the synaptic and behavioral defects. Therefore, we conclude that coronin 1 regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal behavior through its interaction with Gαs upon cell surface stimulation.

Speaker
Biography:

Vivek Sharma has completed his Master of Research (MRes) in Molecular Oncology from Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, UK and MSc in Biotechnology from the Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, India. He is currently working as an Assistant Professor at Division of Cancer Research, Department of Biotechnology, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, India. He has published papers in reputed journals and national and international conferences in UK and India. He has won a Graduate Entrepreneur Award from University of Liverpool, UK as a result of which he is developing an enterprise focused on bringing together basic elements of Ayurvedic sciences and contemporary biological sciences.

Abstract:

S100A4 is a Ca2+ binding protein, associated with metastasis in many forms of cancer and has also been identified as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in breast cancer metastasis. In the past years scientists have shown that S100A4 binds with both intracellular and extracellular secondary protein partners to mediate the processes like EMT leading to motility and invasion, cell death and angiogenesis. This gave us a background that S100A4 can be employed as a therapeutic target for metastasis. We screened some novel compounds using Autodock4 which showed that they interact with the active site of S100A4 and have the potential to restrict its binding with secondary protein partners. The simulation studies were done using GROMACS to look at finer details of the interactions. While looking at these details which will lead to development of targeted therapies with an individualized approach, we wondered about the biological relevance of these structural interactions and possibility of translating this into an effective therapy. On the other hand approaches like Ayurveda have reports and evidences which redefine the fundamental biological principles in complete holistic sense and have the potential to open investigations for personalized and integrative medicine for even the most complicated diseases to understand, such as cancer metastasis. We in our lab and at Anvaya Biosciences are focused on developing an amalgamated platform where we can employ concepts of Tridosha, Saptdhatu and Panchmahabhutas together with tools of genomics and proteomics to come up with integrative therapies which can be employed clinically.

Sarita Yadav

Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, India

Title: An α-L- rhamnosiadase from Penicillium greoroseum MTCC-9424

Time : 16:55-17:10

Speaker
Biography:

Sarita Yadav has completed her PhD degree from the Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur and Postdoctoral studies (DST-WOSA Scheeme) from the same University. She is currently UGC-Postdoctoral Women Fellow. She has published more than 11 papers in reputed national and international journals.

Abstract:

The α-L-rhamnosidase [EC.3.2.1.40] cleaves terminal α-L-rhamnose specifically from a number of rhamnosides and is widely distributed in nature. It has several potential applications and has been used for structural determination of biologically important glycosides, polysaccharides and glycolipids. It is also used for hydrolysis of rhamnosyl residues present in flavonoid glycosides such as naringin, hesperidin, rutin and quercetrin. The hydrolysis of rutin and quercetrin, the most common flavonoids glucosides in the human diet by bacterial α-L-rhamnosidase has been reported. There is also several technological application of α-L-rhamnosidase such as the removal of bitterness from citrus juices caused by naringin and hydrolysis of hesperidin by α-L-rhamnosidase to release L- rhamnose and hesperidin glucosides which is an important precursor in sweetener production. In addition, there is an industrial interest in α-L-rhamnosidase for their action towards terpenyl glucosides in the application of enhancing aroma in grape juices and derived beverages. The enzymes with different properties suit the different biotechnological applications. For example α-L-rhamnosidase having pH optimum in 3-4 pH unit ranges are more suitable for debittering of citrus fruit juices which also have their pHs in the range 3-4 pH units. The enzymes with pH optima near neutral range are more suitable for the aroma enhancement of wine. Thus there is a biotechnological need to purify α-L-rhamnosidases from different sources and to study their properties so that α-L-rhamnosidases suitable for different biotechnological applications could be identified. In this communication, we report α-L-rhamnosidase from the culture filtrate of Penicillium greoroseum MTCC-9424 and have accessed its properties for different biotechnological applications.

Speaker
Biography:

Deepika Aggarwal is currently pursuing her PhD at the Department of Biochemistry, Panjab University. The aim of her research work is to investigate the antilithiatic potential of B. ligulata rhizome with a plunge to isolate the active metabolites responsible for this activity. She has got two publications with one original research article in Journal of Ethnopharmacology and another being a review to her credit. She has presented her work at many national and international conferences

Abstract:

The current lack in regimen of management of renal tissue calcification and the side-effects of synthesized allopathic medicine shifted the focus of scientists towards the traditional system of herbal therapy. Bergenia ligulata is referred by the ayurvedic system for treatment of kidney stone since decades but a scientific study indicating its metabolite responsible for antilithiatic activity is lacking. The aim of the study was to isolate the most potent antilithiatic metabolite from the rhizome of B. ligulata. In order to identify this, the crude extract of rhizome was fractionated using column chromatography guided by in vitro calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth inhibitory activity. The active fraction was characterized via LC-MS, FTIR and NMR. Further, the in vitro antioxidant potential of purified molecule was also assessed. In vivo activity of the metabolite was evaluated in hyperoxaluric rats given 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1.0% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) for 9 days. Activity guided fractionation led to the isolation of most potent antilithiatic metabolite from the rhizome of B. ligulata and spectroscopic analysis revealed it as bergenin. At a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of the treated rat, it protected against deleterious effects of lithogenic treatment. Bergenin maintained oxidant/antioxidant balance in hyperoxaluric rats, thus mechanistic insight of its antilithiatic activity was attributed to its antioxidant capability. The results of the present study provide significant evidence that bergenin is an active component present in the rhizome of B. ligulata for managing CaOx calculi ameliorating renal injury.

Speaker
Biography:

Minu Sharma is a Senior Research Fellow pursuing her PhD from Panjab University, Chandigarh. She has three publications in reputed journals, one original research paper and two review papers.

Abstract:

Hyperoxaluria is an imperative risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation in nephrolithiasis. The in vitro and in vivo investigations indicated that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of kidney stone. NADPH oxidase is considered as a major source of ROS in hyperoxaluric conditions. Apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, is a natural non-toxic compound isolated from a medicinal plant, Picrorhiza kurroa. It prevents activation of NADPH oxidase by blocking the assembly of cytosolic units with the membrane complex. Hence the present study was designed to investigate the effect of apocynin on ethylene glycol induced hyperoxaluria in male Wistar rats. Four groups were designed with 6 animals each. Control rats were given normal saline intraperitonealy. EG group rats received 0.4% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride in drinking water for 9 days to induce hyperoxaluria. Apocynin group rats received apocynin alone (200 mg/kg body weight, i.p. per day) for 9 days. EG+Apocynin group rats received 0.4% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride in drinking water along with apocynin (200 mg/kg body weight, i.p. per day) for 9 days. Urine was collected on 9th day and rats were sacrificed on day 10. Their kidneys were processed for localization of crystals and various other biochemical analyses. Results indicated significant reduction in the oxidative stress and improvement in the renal dysfunction in apocynin treated hyperoxaluric rats. In conclusion, apocynin presented itself as a safe and effective remedy in combating hyperoxaluria induced nephrolithiasis.

Alka Rani

Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, India

Title: Differential regional fatty acid distribution in normotensive and preeclampsia placenta

Time : 17:40-17:55

Speaker
Biography:

Alka Rani is currently pursuing her PhD from IRSHA, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, India. She has a background of Engineering in Biotechnology as a Gold Medalist. She was awarded INSPIRE Fellowship by DST for pursing her PhD. Her work is published and under revision in many international journals. She has also contributed a chapter in a book of CRC publication.

Abstract:

Background: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are biologically active fatty acids which regulate placental angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Abnormalities in these aspects have been associated with preeclampsia (PE). Further, placenta has a heterogeneous structure with differential vascularization across different regions. We therefore hypothesize that the distribution of fatty acids in various regions of the placenta is altered in PE leading to poor fetal outcome. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we recruited 69 normotensive control (NC) and 44 women with PE. PE women were further classified as those delivered preterm (PTPE, n=24) and at term (TPE, n=20). Fatty acid levels were analyzed from placental samples from four different regions (CF-central fetal, PF-peripheral fetal, CM-central maternal and PM-peripheral maternal). Results: In the NC placenta, AA levels were lower (p<0.05) in CM as compared with CF region. However, such differences were not seen in the TPE and PTPE. In contrast, the DHA levels varied between regions only in the PTPE placenta. Between groups, DHA levels were lower (p<0.05 for both) in the CM and CF regions of the PTPE as compared with NC. The levels of DHA in TPE placenta were similar to NC. AA levels were lower (p<0.05 for both) in CF region of TPE and PF region of PTPE placenta than NC. Conclusions: There is differential pattern of LCPUFA distribution across various regions of the NC, TPE and PTPE placenta. This may have implications for placental growth and development as well as transfer of LCPUFA to the fetus.

Speaker
Biography:

Geetanjali Sageena has submitted her PhD thesis in April 2015 from the Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, India. She is currently working as an Assistant Professor at Keshav Mahavidyalaya, an undergraduate college of University of Delhi.

Abstract:

Holometabolous insect, Drosophila melanogaster serves as an exemplary model system to study impact of environmental stress on both energy acquisition and allocation as it comprises of two distinct phases of life cycle, namely, growing pre-adult phase and post mitotic adult phase. Resource acquisition in D. melanogaster occurs during the three larval stages of the pre-adult phase while resource allocation towards adult survival and reproduction occurs perhaps during the differentiating pupal stage as well as in the early adult phase. Through this study we tried to assess the affect of heavy metals in the larval diet on energy budget of the adult flies, in response to exposure of growing larvae to diet laced with specific heavy metals as seen in energy depleted populations of D. melanogaster as a result of selection for faster pre-adult development and compare with changing energy dynamics of normal fly population. Our results show that energy compromised yet long lived flies have reduced stress tolerance compared to normal flies, reaffirming the finding that stress tolerance and adult lifespan are not tightly correlated (F1, 2=50.843, p=0.01). Further, there was significant effect of treatment (F2, 4=16.107, p=0.01) and gender (F1, 2=32.818, p=0.02), in that the females had higher levels of energy than males. The fly’s enclosed from heavy metals laced diet had lesser energy accumulated than those reared on SM. The results clearly demonstrate the dynamic nature of relationship between different life history traits such as longevity and stress resistance. Further, this study also established the fact that the relationship between life-history traits are strongly mediated through internal energy levels of the flies.

Meghna Sheoran

Indian Institute of Technology(Delhi), India

Title: Effect of salts on interfacial and thermodynamic behavior of myoglobin

Time : 18:25-18:40

Speaker
Biography:

Meghna Sheoran has received her Master’s degree in Chemical Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Rourkela and she is a PhD student in Dr. Sudip K. Pattanayek’s group. Her PhD work focuses on adsorption of proteins at interfaces.

Abstract:

The structural stability of a protein is important for its biological function and activity. Various environmental factors such as temperature, salt, pH and additives are responsible for the structural stability of proteins. Various researchers have found the effect of various ions on the structural stability of various proteins and have proposed a “Hofmeister series”. It is also found that the cations and anions can affect the surface tension of the protein solution. Thus properties of protein due to presence of salt can affect both the solution and the interface properties. Myoglobin, a globular low molecular weight protein (Mol. Wt. 17,800 Da and isoelectric point 7.4) is found to increase in blood due to myocardial damage. So, scientists have started working on Myoglobin as a biomarker to detect the disease. We have investigated the effect of different salts (NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, MgCl2, NH4Cl, Na2HPO4 on solution properties and interfacial properties of myoglobin. We have measured interfacial tension and interfacial rheology near air by using oscillatory deformed drop module of Tensiometer. In addition, we have studied thermodynamic effects of salts on protein. We observed that the equilibrium surface tension effects are in correspondence with the Hofmeister series. Increase in ionic strength tends to lower the surface tension as more molecules will come to the surface. Higher surface tension values are observed with kosmotropic salts such as (NH4)2SO4. Chaotropic salts as Na2HPO4 has lower surface tension value. As frequency is increased, the interfacial tension value decrease and elastic modulus increases. The conformational changes of protein structure in presence of salts were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. These results show that a combination of surface and thermodynamic properties is useful in studying the influence of salts on properties of proteins.

  • Track-7: Microbiology and Microbial World
Location: Hall-3

Chair

Rani Gupta

University of Delhi, India

Speaker

Co-Chair

Ritu Gaur

South Asian University, India

Speaker
Biography:

Om Prakash Sharma has completed his PhD from University of Delhi, India and Postdoctoral studies from Florida State University and Georgia Institute of Technology under Professor Joel E Kostka. Currently he is working as a Scientist in Microbial Culture Collection division of National Centre for Cell Science, India. He has contributed 27 research papers, 6 review articles and 3 book chapters in reputed journals and books. He is Life Member of Association of Microbiologist of India and Bergeys Manual Trust and mentored about 10 MSc dissertations.

Abstract:

Culture independent omics studies have demonstrated immense uncultured microbial diversity in different habitats and triggered the microbiologists to apply novel methods and approaches to bring them in culture for research and biotechnological exploitation. Consequently, publications related to novel taxa are continuously increasing in microbiological literature in recent time. Cultivation and characterization of novel taxa must require their appropriate preservation in microbial resource centres (MRCs) for future reference, research and exploitation. Therefore, concept of bio-banking/seed-banking of microorganisms should be promoted by microbiologists, microbiological societies and funding agencies to protect the valuable microbial diversity of our planet. In addition microbiological journals should also insist on deposition of microorganisms before their publication and to make them accessible to public and protect them from extinction. At present most MRCs are just focusing on ex situ preservation. Concept of ecosystem and habitat preservation is in infancy in microbiology and now it is necessary to start thinking about preservation of microorganisms at ecosystem or habitats level to protect them from extinction. Furthermore, in addition to culture preservation and authentication MRCs should engage in research related to causes of genetic changes and induction of cell dormancy during preservation. Microbial Culture Collection (MCC) located at National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS) Pune, India maintains more than 1,50,000 strains of bacteria from diverse ecological niches of India. I would like to focus in my presentation on the issues mentioned above but also on strategies and approach we are using here to isolate, characterize, preserve and exploit our own microbial resources for biotechnological purposes.

Speaker
Biography:

She is the Assistant Professor in Biotechnology at Khalsa College, Patiala.She is having 9 years of teaching experience in the field of Biotechnology.

Abstract:

Amongst yeasts, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is an attractive host model for high-level protein production and functional analysis of eukaryotic proteins as it shares many molecular, genetic and biochemical features with higher eukaryotes such as plants and animals, and is distinguishable from other yeasts through its ability to proliferate by fission rather than budding. Furthermore, S. pombe has a developed Golgi apparatus and galactosyl transferase that is not found in other yeast cells. However, one of the major hurdles in efficient production and purification of heterologous proteins from S. pombe is proteolytic degradation of the recombinant gene products by host-specific proteases. The problem becomes significant when the recombinant protein under production, is secretory and proteolytically sensitive in nature. The present study aims at controlling the protease activity by gene silencing approach. RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved gene regulatory mechanism with many species-specific variations by which double stranded RNA (dsRNA) causes sequence-specific degradation of mRNA sequences. It has become a powerful tool for genetic analyses and is likely to become a potent therapeutic approach for gene silencing. A Protease silencing cassette was designed to impede the protease enzyme post trascriptionally. Since all proteases do not attack all proteins, only protein specific protease is sought to be silenced as a test case in this study. Human parathyroid hormone having a chain of 115 AAs was selected as model protein and the silencing of protease responsible for its degradation was studied as a test case.

Alok K Sil

University of Calcutta, India

Title: An insight into bioremediation of synthetic polymer

Time : 14:00-14:20

Speaker
Biography:

Alok K Sil is currently an Associate Professor of Microbiology at University of Calcutta, India. He has obtained his BSc in Chemistry and MSc in Biochemistry from University of Calcutta. He has received his PhD in Biochemistry from University of Calcutta and Postdoctoral training from Penn State College Medicine, USA (1995-2000) and University of California, USA (2000-2003). He has been in the Department of Microbiology, University of Calcutta, India since 2004. His current research area includes microbial ecology with special emphasis on bioremediation of synthetic polymers and various aspects of cigarette smoke induced human diseases.

Abstract:

Synthetic polymers are extensively used in modern day life due to easy availability, light weight and durability. The major problem of the usage of these synthetic polymers is that they are not easily degraded and thus pollute the environment. However, it is extremely difficult to avoid using these materials as plastics have become an integral part of modern life. Thus the current situation makes it necessary to devise new technologies for the remediation of plastic-related environmental pollution. Microbes are known for surviving in niches that are rich in recalcitrant material such as synthetic polymers. This observation suggests that microbes surviving in such environments may have potential to utilize synthetic polymers that are apparently not biodegradable and thus such microbes could prove valuable in cost-effective remediation of plastic waste. Consistent with this, there are reports of microbial degradation of synthetic polymers. To this end, my research group also isolated several microorganisms which are capable of degrading synthetic polymers including polyurethane (PUR), polyethylene succinate (PES) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). While investigating the underlying mechanism of this degradation, we observed that cellular surface hydrophobicity and the biofilm formation ability on the polymer surface play important role in polymer degradation. The formation of biofilm is an adaptation that allows survival under varied environmental conditions. We observed that biofilm harvested cells exhibited higher metabolic activity, functional diversity, functional homogeneity and cell surface hydrophobicity than planktonic cells. All these adaptations lead to enhanced degradation of the polymer.

Ritu Gaur

South Asian University, India

Title: Targeting HIV replication and maturation: Role of APOBEC proteins and bevirimat

Time : 14:20-14:40

Speaker
Biography:

Ritu Gaur has completed her PhD from National Institute of Immunology in 2001 and Postdoctoral studies from National Institute of Health, USA. She is currently working as an Associate Professor at South Asian University, New Delhi. Her main area of interest is HIV pathogenesis and interaction with host proteins.

Abstract:

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein plays a crucial role during the viral life cycle by regulating virion infectivity and in vivo pathogenesis. Vif counteracts a cellular factor identified as APOBEC3G (APO3G). APO3G is a cytidine deaminase and causes editing of the viral cDNA during reverse transcription. The effect of Vif on APO3G is species specific. The Vif protein from African green monkey (Agm) simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm) is unable to suppress the antiviral activity of human APO3G but is active against Agm APO3G. SIVmacVif on the other hand, possesses antiviral activity against both human and Agm APO3G. In an attempt to map domains in SIVmacVif, we have constructed a series of Vif chimeras and determined their activity against human, Agm and rhesus APO3G. We found that replacing any region in SIVmacVif by corresponding fragments from SIVagmVif only moderately reduced the activity of the chimeras against Agm APO3G but in all cases resulted in a severe loss of activity against human APO3G. Further mutagenesis is ongoing in an attempt to define the residues involved in activity of SIV Mac Vif. One of the major problems faced during anti-retroviral treatment of HIV patients is evolution of drug-resistant viruses. We are currently working on a new class of inhibitors called Maturation Inhibitors, which block virus maturation into infectious particle. In collaboration with NIH (USA), we are working on the first-in-class maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM). BVM acts by blocking a specific step in the Gag processing cascade namely, cleavage of the capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1) processing intermediate to mature CA. Experiments are underway to screen BVM analogs that might be more potent than parental compound.

Speaker
Biography:

Sangeeta Choudhary is an Assistant Professor in Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India. She has completed her PhD in 2010 from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. She has published several papers in reputed peer reviewed journals. Her research interests include microbial diversity and gene expression under stress condition, metagenomics and bioremediation.

Abstract:

A multi metal resistant bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain J007 isolated from uranium mine sites of Jaduguda, India was characterized to detect the presence and expression of metal resistance determinants. PCR based detection followed by sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of specific metal resistance genes copA and czcA in this isolate. Real-time PCR based expression studies of these genes indicated a general up-regulation of both the genes in response to Cu, Cd or Zn while sodA gene encoding superoxide dismutase enzyme was up-regulated only at higher metal concentrations. High levels of mRNA transcripts of copA and czcA genes in response to specific metals suggest that these resistance systems have important role in conferring metal resistance to the strain. Employing real-time PCR, 16S rRNA and czcA genes were targeted to determine the abundance of P. aeruginosa J007 like strains in mine waste sample. Based on copy numbers of 16S rRNA and czcA gene, abundance of P. aeruginosa J007 like strains was determined in the range of 1.5±0.7×104 to 3.1±0.98×104 cells g-1 sample. Real-time PCR based method developed in this study for detection of metal resistance genes as well as enumeration of this kind of bacterium in contaminated samples using both structural and functional biomarkers could be an efficient monitoring tool for in situ bioremediation.

Speaker
Biography:

Karen Trchounian has completed his PhD in Biophysics and Biotechnology in 2013 at Yerevan State University, Armenia. Currently, he is a Researcher at the Faculty of Biology, Yerevan State University. His research is focused on environmental regulation of bacterial growth and metabolism, hydrogenase activity and hydrogen production by bacteria. He has got FEBS and DAAD Research Fellowships to visit Martin-Luther University, Germany. Moreover, he has been awarded FEMS Research Fellowship to conduct research at Wageningen University Research Center, Netherlands. He is a Laureate of “Academia” Prize for Young Scientists dedicated to the 70th Anniversary of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia and Prize for the Best Achievement in Science of Young Foundation of Armenia.

Abstract:

The future substantial reduction in use of fossil fuels means that the identification of suitable ecologically clean, alternative renewable energy sources needs to be explored. One of these sources is molecular hydrogen (H2) which can be generated by diverse microbial or other biomasses. Escherichia coli are able to encode four membrane-bound [Ni-Fe] hydrogenases (Hyd). All Hyd enzymes are reversible depending on pH and carbon source. During glucose or glycerol fermentation Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 operate in H2 oxidizing or producing mode respectively. H2 production by E. coli wild type strain whole cells during utilization of glucose, glycerol and formate at pH 7.5 and pH 6.5 was investigated. In the mixture of 2 g/l glucose, 10 g/l glycerol and 0.68 g/l formate H2 production rate (VH2) in glucose assays was ~3 fold and ~5 folds more at pH 7.5 and pH 6.5 respectively, compared to the cells grown on glucose only. Interestingly, in glycerol assays at both pH VH2 ~2 fold lower, compared to the cells grown on glycerol only. In formate supplemented assays VH2 was the same as in glucose assays at both pH tested. Taken together, it can be concluded that glycerol in the presence of glucose and formate can be utilized anaerobically by E. coli and H2 can be produced. Moreover, E. coli grown in the presence of mixed carbon sources can be applied for enhanced H2 production from different wastes where glycerol and formate are present. Moreover, regulation and optimization of various substrates concentrations might be developed in enhancing H2 production.

Speaker
Biography:

Kumari Sunita is presently working as a Women Scientist (UGC), New Delhi. She is doing her research work under the supervisor of Prof D K Singh, Department of Zoology, DDU, Gorakhpur University. She has completed her BSc, MSc and PhD in Zoology from DDU Gorakhpur University. Till date she has 15 research papers and 1 book among them 14 papers are in international journals. Her area of specialization is Parasitology, Biochemistry, Toxicology and Molecular Biology.

Abstract:

Fasciolosis, a plant-borne zoonotic disease is caused by trematode of the genus Fasciola. The definite hosts include many herbivorous mammals including humans. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the intermediate snails or Fasciola larva stages (sporocyst, redia and cercaria) in the snail. Human fasciolosis is reported now in different part of world. According to WHO 2.4 million humans are infected with Fasciola and a further 180 million are at risk of infection. The fresh water snails are an intermediate host of the Fasciola species. Fasciolosis caused immense economic losses such as lower production of meat, milk and wool, reduce weight gain and impaired fertility of infected animals. Citral has been shown to possess larvicidal activity against Fasciola and here we test whether, the activity varies by season. In vitro toxicity of citral against redia was highest in between the June to August (8h LC50-2.58-2.62 mg/L), whereas against cercaria 8h LC50 was in between 3.44 - 2.62 mg/L. Highest in vivo toxicity against redia was noted in between June to August (8h LC50-4.20-5.09 mg/L). The lowest toxicity was observed from November to April. The highest temperature, free carbon dioxide and lowest pH, dissolved oxygen was observed from June to August. The present study conclusively shows that variant a biotic factor can significantly alter the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of citral against sporocyst redia and cercaria larva.

Speaker
Biography:

Rani Gupta has carried out her PhD program (1983-1988) at Botany Department, Delhi University in Microbial Physiology, Biochemistry and Ecology. Since then she has been working at the Department of Microbiology University of Delhi South Campus (UDSC). Her group has been working on industrial enzymes like protease, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lipase, amylase and chitinase from the past 30 years.

Abstract:

Three novel lipases TALipA, TALipB and TALipC from opportunistic pathogen Trichosporon asahii MSR54 were isolated, sequenced and heterologously expressed in E.coli and Pichia pastoris X33. Both glycosylated and non-glycosylated proteins were characterized. These lipases are biotechnologically important because all the three lipases are enantioselective. Out of the three, TALipC has an asprich domain and shows enantioinversion in different solvents. It shows Mg activation and calcium inhibition. The role of these lipases was studied in growth and biofilm formation by knock-down strategy. The RNAi silencing and agrobacterium mediated transformation for developing knock-down strains of T. asahii was standardized in our laboratory for the first time. The lipase knock-down strains lost the property of yeast to fungal transition and predominantly retained the yeast stage. Detailed structural and functional comparisons of these lipases will be highlighted.

Speaker
Biography:

Bishnu Maya Bashyal has completed her PhD from Banaras Hindu University. She is working as a Scientist at Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Bakanae is caused by Fusarium fujikuroi (Nirenberg) is emerging as a serious disease of rice in India. Elongation and rotting of seedlings are distinguished symptoms of bakanae disease. Sixty three isolates of Fusarium fujikuroi were isolated from symptomatic diseased plants collected from Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Bihar. Identities of the isolates were confirmed through translation elongation factor 1-α (tef-1α) gene sequence based identification. Out of 12 Universal Rice Primers (URP) used in the study, six primers effectively produced polymorphic bands in all the isolates. URP 17R and URP 6R primer produced 93% polymorphic bands. Mating type of the population was identified based on MAT-1 and MAT-2 region universal primers (GFmat1a, GFmat1b, GFmat2c and GFmat2d) for Gibberella fujikuroi. Among the 63 isolates 18 (28.57%) were identified as MAT-1 and 45 (71.42%) as MAT-2. Effective population number Ne(mt) for mating type was 89% of the count (total population). Since both the mating types were not present in equal frequencies in the F. fujikuroi population, asexual reproduction was likely to occur in the field isolates. However, the occurrence of both the mating types in the F. fujikuroi implied that the population members are capable of sexual reproduction. Therefore, it is important that programs to develop cultivars with the bakanae disease resistance considering other factors including the environmental conditions and variability of the pathogen in the area of intended cultivation.

Gaurav Baranwal

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, India

Title: O-acetylation of peptidoglycan affects ex vivo and in vivo survival of S. aureus

Time : 16:40-16:55

Speaker
Biography:

Gaurav Baranwal is currently pursuing his PhD from Center for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicines, Amrita University, Kerala. He has published two research articles in peered review journals and he has participated in many conferences for oral and poster presentations.

Abstract:

Lysozyme is one of the principle components of the host innate defense system which cleaves the β-1, 4 glycosidic bonds between N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) of the peptidoglycan to induce bacterial lysis. It is present in a very high concentration in all human biological fluids such as saliva, nasal secretions, serum and tears and produced by neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells during phagocytic killing of bacterial pathogen as a part of host innate immune defense mechanism. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), an opportunistic pathogen acetylates its peptidoglycan at the C-6 position of NAM producing the 2, 6-N, O-diacetylmuramic acid derivative to resist the catalytic activity of lysozyme. Earlier studies showed that under in vitro conditions S. aureus mutant with de-O-acetylated peptidoglycan (∆oatA) was 2-3 fold more sensitive towards lysozyme than the parental strain. In the present study, we are reporting the role of peptidoglycan O-acetylation in S. aureus virulence in ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Our preliminary results showed the diminished survival of the mutant devoid of O-acetylation in phosphate buffer solution containing human lysozyme. The survivability of the ∆oatA mutant was also challenged when exposed to human biological fluid like tears, blood, sweat and saliva. Further the survivability inside macrophages as well as under in vivo scenario of the ∆oatA mutant when compared with wild type strain of S. aureus was found diminished. With the above found results we assume OatA could act as a potential target for future drug development.

Speaker
Biography:

Rajni Kant Thakur is currently pursuing his P.hd in Molecular biology and biotechnology. He has published three papers in different national conferences.

Abstract:

The use of bacteria in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach for production of nanoparticles due to its low energy requirement, environmental compatibility reduced costs of manufacture, scalability and nanoparticles stabilization compared with the chemical synthesis. The production of gold nanoparticles by the Bacillus lichniformis GPI-2 was reported in this study. Cells exposed to Au3+ turned from colorless into an intense purple color. This change of color indicates the accumulation of extracellular gold nanoparticles. Elemental analysis of particles composition was verified using TEM analysis. The gold nanoparticles sizes were verified by TEM showing different types of particles of predominant spherical shape with size ranging from 20-51 nm. FT-IR was utilized to characterize the chemical surface of gold nanoparticles. This assay supports the idea of a protein type of compound on the surface of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) provide non-toxic carriers for drug and gene delivery applications. Gold nanoparticles have been used as anti HIV, anti-angiogensis, anti-malarial and anti-arthritic agent. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles are used for delivering molecules into cells to slow down cancer cells. This green route of biosynthesis of GNPs is simple, economically viable and eco-friendly process.

Speaker
Biography:

Shweta Nim is currently pursuing her PhD with title “Understanding the Promiscuity of Multidrug Transporter of Candida albicans” under the guidance of Professor Rajendra Prasad from Jawaharlal Nehru University, India. In her two years of PhD, she has published her part of work in “Fems Yeast Research” in 2014, which has been acknowledged as the “Editor’s choice Paper of the month” and other communicated in Journal of Phytomedicine on June 4, 2015. She has completed her Master of Science and Master of Philosophy in Life Sciences from Jawaharlal Nehru University, India.

Abstract:

Among the 28 putative ABC transporters and 95 putative MFS transporters identified in the C. albicans genome, only CaCdr1p and CaCdr2p and the MFS transporter CaMdr1p are major determinants of azole resistance and variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as lipids and steroids. The architecture of the drug-binding sites and promiscuity towards substrates is essential to understand the drug-protein interaction and provide a platform for rational design of modulators/inhibitors. Also the reversal of azole resistance is considered an attractive strategy to desensitize the multidrug resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. Therefore, we have explored the poly-specific nature of the Cdr1 protein by screening its in-house mutant library with varied range of chemically related and unrelated compounds. Based on the biochemical mapping of essential residues, we established the substrate specificity of Cdr1p to be independent of size, charge and hydrophobicity. Our study also established the molecular basis of interaction of an immunosuppressant FK520 with Cdr1p and deduced the role of critical amino acids of the transporter protein, which if replaced with alanine, not only abrogated FK520-dependent competitive inhibition of drug efflux but simultaneously decreased susceptibility to azoles. Another class of compounds, macrocyclic diterpenes derived from Euphorbia species, reported as strong modulators of the transport activity of the human P-glycoprotein where found to inhibit drug-efflux activity and render fluconazole sensitization to CaCdr1p and CaMdr1p which may constitute valuable leads for developing effective modulators of C. albicans multidrug transporters.

Speaker
Biography:

Shweta Mishra has completed her PhD in 2014 from Department of Microbiology; Banaras Hindu University. She has achieved several fellowship programs and life member of premier organizations. She has her papers published in peer reviewed international journals like PLOSone, IJAA and IJMM and book chapters in international books and she is currently working as a Senior Research Fellow from ICMR funded project in the same department.

Abstract:

The common mechanism of resistance of Citrobacter freundii to β-lactam antibiotics is the presences of plasmid mediated blaAmpC. In this study we evaluate the emergence of ampC gene among clinical isolates of C. freundii isolated from urine of symptomatic UTI patients and also to assess mobile genetic elements. A total of 30 consecutive, clinical isolates of C. freundii were investigated for the presence of AmpC β-lactamase. Molecular characterization was studied by mPCR for gene of AmpC including the coproduction of other β-lactamase. Presence of integron was detected using integrase gene primers. Presence of integron to blaAmpC gene along with gene cassettes identified using specific primers. Genetic location on insertion sequence was also seen. A total of 16 isolates were phenotypically positive for AmpC. On performing their genotypic characterization, 5 isolates were found to be positive for blaCMY-2, 3 isolates having blaDHA-2 whereas one isolates coproducing blaCMY-2 and blaDHA-2. In which some AmpC positive isolates were coexisting blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM family of MBL and blaCTXM, blaSHV of ESBL. Among them 8 were harboring class 1 integron, linkage between integron and blaCMY-2 has been detected. Investigation of gene-cassettes revealed the presence of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase (aac 6') genes and presence of CMY-2 gene on ISEcp1 were also seen. The study showed that these genes have high ability to cross species barrier with ease and integrated other resistance genes. Eventually, AmpC gene highlights the potential risk in hospital environment. Thus the attainment of AmpC genes by C. freundii restricts therapeutic alternatives for combating infections.

Speaker
Biography:

K L R Bonhi is currently pursuing her PhD (Applied Microbiology) from Manav Rachna International University. She has published four papers in different national and international conferences.

Abstract:

Bacteriocins are an abundant and diverse group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain. It can be used as alternative to antibiotics. The aim of our research work was to identify and characterized the bacteriocins produced by soil-associated bacteria. Subtilin from Bacillus subtilis and pyocin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) were found active against gram-positive microorganism tested. Production of both the bacteriocins started and observed during the stationary phase. Maximum production of both the bacteriocins was observed at 30 degrees C in BHI medium. Subtilin remained stable during 4-8 pH while pyocin Pa remained stable at pH 1-11. Activity of both was completely lost after proteinase K treatment suggesting their protein nature. Both of the bacterocins were found resistant to high temperature (121o C for 30 min), detergents (1% solutions of EDTA, Tween-20 and SDS) and solvents (1% solutions of Ethanol, Methanol, Chloroform and Acetone) Titer of Subtilin was estimated to be 4680 AU/mL while the titer for pyocin Pa was calculated as 780 AU/mL. Both of the bacteriocins showed bacteriolytic mode of action against the indicator Bacillus strain BC31 and were found <25 kDa in their molecular mass

Jyoti Kushwah

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India

Title: Analysis of factors governing nematode-host specificity in bacterium Photorhabdus

Time : 17:55-18:10

Speaker
Biography:

Jyoti Kushwah has completed her MSc (Microbiology) in 2008 from Jiwaji University, India and she is currently pursuing her PhD (Microbiology) under the guidance of Dr. Veena Garg; Professor of the Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, Banasthali University and Dr. Vishal Singh Somvanshi; a Senior Scientist at the Department of Nematology of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India.

Abstract:

Majority of animals form symbiotic relationships with bacteria. Some animals partner with a single bacterial symbiont, while other animals symbiose with simple or complex bacterial consortia. The insect parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis lives in mono-specific symbiotic relationship with the enterobacterium Photorhabdus and is a tractable genetic model for the study of animal-microbe relationships. Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus association is highly species-specific. Present work was undertaken to identify factors which might be involved in the host specificity of the bacterial symbionts Photorhabdus with its nematode partner Heterorhabditis. Total protein profile of 2 Photorhabdus sub-species, P. luminescens subsp. laumondii (isolated from H. bacteriophora) and P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii (isolated from H. indica) was compared by 2D Gel electrophoresis followed by identification of differentially expressed proteins by MALDI-TOF MS. Out of 43 proteins analyzed, 13 unique proteins were identified in P. luminescens subsp. laumondii comprising 2 catalases, 3 ABC-type transporters, 1 translation elongation factor, 1 outer membrane Protein, 1 peptidase,1 chaperon protein, 2 antibiotic synthesis regulators and 2 hypothetical proteins. Remaining 20 were from P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii, showing 2 transcription regulators, 4 dehydrogenases, 2 ABC-type transporter, 1 DNA topoisomerase, 1 catalase, 1 kinase, 2 Tol B (protein import), 2 involved in amino acid synthesis, 2 involved in phosphate biosynthesis and 3 hypothetical proteins. Here we identified some of the proteins that might be involved in nematode-host specificity between Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus.

Speaker
Biography:

Archana Yadav has completed her PhD in the year 2010 from CSIR-NBRI and University of Lucknow and she was awarded with CSIR-Research Associate Fellowship (2012-2015) for pursuing her Postdoctoral studies from CSIR. She was awarded the Young Scientist Fellowship (2015-2018) by UPCST. She has published 8 research articles in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize a potential stress tolerant plant growth promoting bacterium from the isolates of Rann of Kutch, near Bhuj in Gujarat, India. A Gram negative, rod shaped, motile and fluorescence pigment producing Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NBRI1310 was isolated from saline desert soil. The taxonomic position of NBRI1310 was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene. The NBRI1310 had ability to grow at wide range of pH 4-11, salt 0-12% (NaCl w/v) and temperature 10-40° C under in vitro conditions. It also demonstrated multiple plant growth-promoting attributes such as phosphate solubilization (48.25 µg of Ca3PO4 ml-1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity (39.1 nmol α-ketobutyrate mg-1 h-1), indole acetic acid (IAA) production (68.74 µg ml-1) and siderophore production under in vitro conditions. Significant increase in the dry biomass of maize (68%), chickpea (45%), pea (50%) and barley (46.1%) plants were also recorded in NBRI1310 inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated control. Based on stress tolerance and multiple PGP attributes, NBRI1310 can further be utilized as potential bio-inoculants to increase agricultural productivity in stress conditions. To feed the ever increasing population in deteriorating and conditions has put the agriculture on high pressure. There is an urgent need to develop better microbe based formulation which can enhance plant growth in stress condition without harming the soil in an economical way. The ability to tolerate stress and enhance plant growth with diverse crops proves its promising candidature agriculture productivity in a more effective, economical and eco-friendly manner.

Speaker
Biography:

Deepika Bhatnagar is currently pursuing her PhD from Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research. She has 5 years of research experience in Biosensing applications using nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots etc., with 9 publications including research articles and book chapters.

Abstract:

Cardiovascular Disease related conditions cost approximately 192 billion Euros per year representing a major financial burden on clinical resources. New research looking at the costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) concludes that the financial burden on clinical will rise to €195 billion by 2020, up from €102.1 billion in 2014. We provide an ultrasensitive immunosensor based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for monitoring the levels of cardiac biomarker Troponin-I (cTnI) using highly biocompatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and graphene. We report a diagnostic platform for cTnI using amine functionalized GQDs-anti-cTnI nano probe fluorescently quenched with graphene with high sensitive detection of myocardial infarction. We accomplish the qualities of strong fluorescence and biocompatible GQDs, biofunctionalization with protein cTnI and distinguishing fluorescence resonance energy transfer between GQDs and graphene to attain and examine the evidence of cTnI. On further injecting target analyte (cTnI) in the system, resulting in immunocomplex formation and quantifying the cTnI in the sample by recovered PL due to weak non-covalent interactions between them. Proposed immunosensor is highly selective which can distinguish exact and approximate antigens to check the cross reactivity. Our reported sensitive immunoassay have widens up a novel chance of fast, easy and sensitive diagnosis of myocardial infarction by monitoring the florescence change and measuring cTnI levels. The fabricated immunosensor is probable to be highly biocompatible because of all its components with excellent biocompatibility.