Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 13th Biotechnology Congress San Francisco, USA.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Xiaohua He

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USA

Keynote: Outbreaks of Shiga toxin-related poisoning and methods for early detection

Time : 10:00-10:50

Conference Series Bio America 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Xiaohua He photo
Biography:

Dr. Xiaohua He is a Research Molecular Biologist at the Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS.  She completed her Ph.D. from UC Riverside, and had Post-doc experiences at Purdue and Cornell Universities.  Dr. He received the 2015 USDA Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer, Far West Region, Outstanding Technology Development Award for her contribution to the development of novel monoclonal antibodies against a broad range of Shiga toxins.  She has served as academic editor and editorial board member of several leading journals and is an author/inventor of over 70 publications and patents, with 14 technologies licensed to industry.  

Abstract:

Shiga toxin  (Stx) is one of the major virulence factors produced by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and is noted for its association with a wide spectrum of diseases, such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the leading cause of acute renal failure in children.  The outbreaks caused by Stx have raised serious public health concerns and resulted in huge economic losses.  In 1982 the first reported outbreak of STEC was caused by an E. coli O157:H7 serotype in undercooked hamburger, but in a report published in 2012, six non-O157 serotypes were revealed to be responsible for 113,000 illness annually in the United States alone, almost double the amount of illness caused by O157.  Other sera-groups, including the highly virulent E. coli O104:H4, have also caused large outbreaks of HC and HUS.  As the sources of outbreaks have changed, a variety of detection methods for Stxs and organisms that produce them have evolved as well.  Here, we will discuss the recent advances on the detection, characterization and typing of Stxs with emphasis on work performed at the Western Regional Research Center, USDA, ARS.

Keynote Forum

Luisa Cheng

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USA

Keynote: New methods for the detection and mitigation of food-borne toxins

Time : 11:10-12:00

Conference Series Bio America 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Luisa Cheng photo
Biography:

Foodborne toxins such as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and mycotoxins are foodborne toxins that cause severe human diseases. Because of their acute toxicity, there are intense research efforts to develop sensitive detection tools, vaccines and therapeutics.  In our laboratories, high-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed for the detection of different BoNT serotypes in commonly used ELISA and new immunoassays using electrochemiluminescence and microfluidic platforms.  Detection limits of these new assays fall within the pg/ml range, well below those of standard assays for BoNTs.  New gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods are tested for the early detection of fungal contamination in nut products.  A better understanding of the biology of toxins in plants and animals and the factors that affect their toxicity, coupled with the development of more sensitive detection and simpler diagnostic tests, would be invaluable for advancing food safety and protection.

Abstract:

Dr. Cheng completed her Ph.D. at the University of California, Los Angeles, and her post-doctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley – focusing in the pathogenesis of foodborne pathogens.  Dr. Cheng joined the Agricultural Research Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2006 and is currently the Research Leader of the Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit in the Western Regional Research Center.  Dr. Cheng’s research program focuses on the development of sensitive detection assays for foodborne toxins; the study of biological mechanisms underlying toxin absorption and action; and the identification of prevention and therapeutic strategies.

Keynote Forum

Zhanyuan J Zhang,

University of Missouri, USA

Keynote: Plant transformation services

Time : 12:00-12:50

Conference Series Bio America 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Zhanyuan J Zhang, photo
Biography:

Dr. Zhanyuan J. Zhang has completed his PhD at the age of 39 years from University of Nebraks-Lincoln, USA and postdoctoral studies from the same University. He is the director of Plant Transformation Core Facility at University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, a land-grant University. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of two international journals. He is also a peer reviewer of over 10 international journals.

Abstract:

University of Missouri (MU) Plant Transformation Core Facility was established in 2000. The key mission of the Facility is to enhance both basic and applied plant biology research by providing plant transformation services and advancing transgenic technologies. Since 2000, the Facility has been providing state-of-the-art plant transformation services. The services are on fees for cost recovery only, not for profit. The facility staff is dedicated to providing various types of transformation services with a focus on maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and model plant species. The service categories include both standard and customized transformation. Transformation systems for all crops utilize Agrobacterium-mediated approaches and somatic embryogenesis processes except for soybean. The Agrobacterium-mediated cot-node transformation system coupled with organogenesis regime is employed for soybean transformation. The facility is also ready to take on new service projects to transform new plant species as user’s requests. Research activities are geared towards developing high-throughput transformation systems, effective small RNA-mediated gene silencing, gene stacking through coordinated transgene expression, and precise genome modifications to meet the needs of crop improvement and genome discoveries. More details on the facility operations and experiences as well as its impact on research collaborations and funding opportunities will be discussed wherever appropriate during the talk. Readers should find out more about MU Plant Transformation Core Facility at http://plantsci.missouri.edu/muptcf/, email to  Zhanyuan J. Zhang at [email protected], or call facility office at 573-882-6922.

  • Food Biotechnology, Agricultural Biotechnology, Biotechnology and its Applications, Environmental Biotechnology
Location: Sausalito

Session Introduction

Akhileshwari Nath

S S Hospital and Research Institute, India

Title: Molecular profiling of testis in arsenic induced mice
Biography:

Akhileshwari Nath is recipient of gold medal during B.Sc. Hons and research work associated gold medals, Common Wealth Exchange fellowship and other awards for her research work. She has completed her Ph.D. in 1974 from Patna University, Patna, Bihar (India) and did postdoctoral training on Electron Microscopy at Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA) in 1976. She is retired Professor and Head of the Dept. of Zoology, from Patna University, Patna, Bihar (India). She was the Head of the Research Centre, Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre (a charitable cancer hospital) Patna, Bihar (India) till January 2015. Presently she is Head of Research Institute, S. S. Hospital and Research Institute, Kankarbagh, Patna. She has published more than 130 papers in reputed journals and completed 5 major research projects funded by Govt. of India.

Abstract:

Arsenic is a potent environmental toxicant and affects biological system through food chain causing toxicity and disturbs different signalling pathways, thus suppresses immune system and finally causing various diseases.

In previous study, extensive survey work has been made in arsenic hit area and drinking water and blood samples were collected. Tissue samples have been collected from cancer patients at S. S .Hospital and Research Institute. After the confirmation of significant high level of arsenic in drinking water, blood and tissue samples, present study was undertaken.

Present study was undertaken to observe the effect of arsenic in testicular cells in mice model and its effect on testicular gene expression.

Sodium arsenite was administered into Swiss albino mice as 2mg/kg body wt. for the different durations. Estimation of arsenic was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. TUNEL assay was done to observe the DNA damage and microarray analysis was performed to observe the mRNA expression profile in sodium arsenite administered mice model.

High accumulation of arsenic was found in testes of Swiss albino mice. Significant DNA damage was observed in arsenic administered testicular cells of Swiss albino mice. Further, mRNA of few genes shows their altered expression.

In the present study, it can be concluded that arsenic affects testicular cells leading to DNA damage and alter testicular gene expression. Thus, our results suggest that mice with high accumulation of arsenic shows altered gene expression.

Jong H Kim

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USA

Title: Chemobiological approaches for enhancing the efficacy of antifungal intervention
Biography:

Jong H. Kim is a researcher in the Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Albany, California. His research focuses on the development of intervention strategies for control of pathogenic fungi. He provides chemo-biological expertise, particularly in the identification of cellular targets and compound interaction, and participates in resistance management in collaboration with industry and academia.

Abstract:

Control of fungal pathogens, such as causative agents for aspergillosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis or producers of mycotoxins, is problematic since effective antifungal agents are often very limited. Also, the expansion of fungal resistance to conventional drugs or fungicides is a global health or food safety/security issue. Therefore, there is persistent need to improve the drug efficacy or to develop new intervention strategies. Fungal drug resistance frequently involves mutations caused by environmental stressors. In fungi, stress signals resulting from oxidative or cell wall stress are integrated into mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) systems that regulate defense genes countering the stress. Of note, mutations in MAPK signaling system could result in tolerance to antifungal agents. Many natural compounds are promising antifungals or leads due to their ability to disrupt fungal defense systems, such as antioxidant pathway. Natural compounds could also serve as chemical probes for identifying new antifungal targets. To enhance drug susceptibility of fungi, the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a tool for identifying cellular targets of natural compounds, where targeting vulnerable components such as antioxidant system effectively disrupted pathogen growth, overcame antifungal tolerance or inhibited mycotoxin production. Finally, chemo-biological approaches enabled the development of novel antifungal chemosensitization, which significantly improved the drug susceptibility of fungal pathogens.

Lmar Babrak

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USA

Title: Antibody engineering from hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies
Biography:

Dr. Lmar Babrak is currently a post-doctoral research scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Hnasko at the Agricultural Research Service located in Albany, CA.  Her research has focused on the development of immunoassays used for the detection of disease causing pathogens, toxins and other agricultural contaminants. She completed her PhD in Microbiology in 2015 from Oregon State University.

Abstract:

Antibody engineering requires the identification of antigen binding domains (variable regions; VRs) unique to each antibody.  This determination can be achieved by sequence analysis of the antibody transcript obtained from the hybridoma; as each clonal hybridoma cell line produces in principle a single antigen specific monoclonal antibody (MAb).  However, the polyploidy nature of hybridoma cells often results in the added expression of aberrant immunoglobulin-like transcripts or even production of nondescript antibodies.  The occurrence of these transcripts confounds identification of the VRs of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains that correspond to the antigen specific antibody.  It is the VRs that define the unique antigen binding properties and proper sequence identification is essential for functional performance of a recombinant engineered antibody.  To address this problem, we have: (1) identified and complied a database of aberrant Ig-like transcripts found in myeloma cell lines (SP2/0-Ag14 and P3X62A8U.1) frequently used in the generation of hybridomas; and (2) developed a PCR-based method for the selective amplification of heavy and light chain VRs from a given antigen specific immunoglobulin isotype combined with molecular cloning and DNA based sequence analysis.  These methods should increase the certainty regarding the VR sequence structure when evaluating the functional performance of a recombinant antibody.  This work serves to facilitate antibody engineering applications with broad interest to biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

Biography:

I have completed my Ph.D. in “Plant Molecular Biology” at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Currently I am working on my DST young scientist project (plant-P.indica interaction under salt stress) as a PI (postdoctoral fellow)  at Jaima Hamdard, New Delhi. I have participitated in various national and international conferences in order to improve my knowledge and skills. I am interested in continuing my research career in plant-microbe interaction where I could employ my skills to understand how the plant-microbe relation regulates plant development and defense response against various stresses.

Abstract:

Background: Piriformospora indica , a filamentous fungus of the order Sebacinales, is able to make symbiotic interaction with root of different plant species and provides better growth and higher yield to the host plant as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. High soil salinity, excess of NaCl, is one of the important environmental factors that limits distribution and productivity of major crops. The need to produce crops with enhanced tolerance to salt stress has been the stimulus for research. P. indica-mediated salt tolerance mechanism was found to be linked strongly with increase in antioxidants under salt stress in barley which attenuates the NaCl-induced lipid peroxidation, metabolic heat efflux, and fatty acid desaturation in barley leaves. Salt stress studies have indicated promising effect of P. indica in barley. Therefore, it is vital to isolate and functionally characterize salinity stress-related genes to elucidate the mechanisms underlying halotolerance and develop salinity stress-tolerant plants.

Observations: We have compared the transcriptome of P. indica growing under high salt conditions (0.5 M NaCl) with salt free conditions as a control. Approximately 30‐40 million 76bp paired-end reads per sample were obtained using an Illumina NextSeq500. RNA-seq analysis was performed using Bowtie/TopHat/Cufflinks software pipeline. Total 15410 unigenes were generated with n50 value of 3038. A total of 13461 differentially expressed genes (fold change ≧ 2) were identified and 2646 genes were downregulated while 2446 genes were upregulated under high salt condition. We found that the genes involved in different cellular processes,such as metabolism, energy and biosynthetic processes, DNA repair, regulation of protein turnover, transport and saltstress tolerance were changed under high salt condition.

Conclusions: RNA-seq and pathway analyses found that salt stressed P. indica have significant differences in gene expression. Our results showed the complex mechanism of P. indica adaption to salt stress and it was a systematic work for endophyte to cope with the high salinity environmental problems. Thus, these results could be helpful for further investigation of the salt resistance mechanism in microbes.

Biography:

Inkyu Park is a senior research scientist at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM). He has completed his PhD from Chungnam National University at Republic of Korea. His research has centerd upon chloroplast genome study with development molecular marker and plastid evolution.

Abstract:

Aconitum species are well known herbaceous medicinal ingredient as well as toxic material and has great economic value in Asian countries. However, genomic information is still limited in Ranunculaceae. In this study, we completed chloroplast genome sequence of two Aconitum species, A. coreanum and A. carmichaelii, based on the Illumina miseq platform. The gene order, gene content and orientation of two Aconitum cp genomes exhibit the general structure of flowering plants, and are similar to other Aconitum species. The two Aconitum chloroplast genomes are 155,880 and 157,040 bp in length, respectively, and contain 131 unique functional genes including  86 protein coding gene, 8 rRNA and 37 tRNA. We established genetic relationship of Aconitum species and Ranunculaceae through phylogenetic tree based on 71 protein condign genes of 19 angiosperms. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of Aconitum species revealed general contraction and expansion of the inverted repeat region (IR) and single copy boundary regions. We obtained barcoding target sequence and developed SCAR marker helpful for discrimination of the Aconitum species. These results suggest that the sequence variables of chloroplast genome could provide the useful genetic information and development of molecular marker for discrimination to identify Aconitum species

Biography:

Zanenhlanhla has completed a Bachelor of Science Honours degree, Cum Laude at the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal and is currenlty pursuing an MSc at the same insitution. She is a member of the Golden Key Honours Society and her key research interests lie in the fields of microalgal biotechnology and renewable energy.

Abstract:

The exhaustion of the world’s fossil fuel supplies and global warming are driving the search for renewable sources of fuel. Microalgae have received great interest as an alternative to fossil fuels due to their fast growth rates and high photosynthetic efficiencies. This study focuses on the optimization of biomass and lipid yield from an indigenous Chlorella isolate using the Response Surface Method. The input parameters consisted of NaNO3, NaHCO3 and NaCl within the ranges of 0.05-2.0g/l, 0.5-3.0g/l and 0-10mM respectively. Data from seventeen experiments with varied culture conditions was used to develop a polynomial model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the model gave a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.72. The predicted optimum conditions for biomass formation were 1.55 g/l NaNO3, 3.0 NaHCO3 and 0mM NaCl. The response graphs showing the interaction of NaHCO3 and NaNO3 on algal growth revealed that an increase in NaNO3 and NaHCO3 medium concentration enhanced the biomass formation whereas NaCl did not impact on biomass formation. These findings revealed that under optimal conditions the indigenous Chlorella isolate could be a potential strain for high biomass formation required for biodiesel production.

Biography:

Preshanthan Moodley has completed his Masters degree cum laude at the age of 27 from the University of KwaZulu-Natal  in South Africa. His masters researched entailed exploring acidic pretreatment of waste sugarcane leaves for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation. He is currently studying towards his PhD degree with his research focusing on enhancing enzymatic sacharification of lignocellulosic waste towards bioethanol and biodiesel production.

Abstract:

Zinc cholride and sulfuric acid were employed as chemical catalysts to  enhance enzymatic pretreatment of waste suharcane leaves.The effects of salt and acid concentration on the enzymatic digestibility using Novozymes Cellic Ctec 2 were examined at a lab scale. Leaves were pretreated using a combination of 3M ZnCl2 and 1.55 % H2SO4 (v/v) with a solid loading of 10% (w/v) at 121oC for 60 min. After washing, enzymatic saccharification was conducted with an enzyme and solid loading of 10 FPU and 10% respectively. Preliminary results indicated a glucose yield of 9.5 g/L per gram of dry weight sugarcane leaves. This yield showed an improvement over salt treatment and water treatment by 22% and 98% respectively. The next stage in this work will be to optimize the chemical (salt concentration, acid concentration and solid loadind) and enzymatic (enzyme loading, solid loading) pretreatment conditions. These findings illustrate the potential of low-cost chemical pretreatment to enhance glucose recovery from ligncocellulosic materials such as sugarcane leaves.

Biography:

Yeshona Sewsynker has completed her MSc with cum laude at the age of 24 years from  the University of KwaZulu-Natal. She is currently pursuing her PhD at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. She has published two of her Masters thesis chapters in peer-reviewed journals with the remaining two chapters currently under review.

Abstract:

This study focused  on the effect of a combination of sulfuric acid and  zinc chloride on the pretreatment of Corn cobs for sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility. The first stage was a combination of zinc chloride and  sulfuric acid which was autoclaved at 121ºC for 60 min. A solid to liquid ratio of 10% was used.  The second stage was enzymatic hydrolysis using Cellic Ctec 2. Preliminary assessment of this hybrid pretreatment technique under a sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, zinc chloride concentration of 3M, enzyme loading of 10 FPU, and reaction time of 48 hr, resulted in a 75% increase in the glucose recovery compared to a single stage enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, the two-stage method  led to a 100% and 81% increase in the glucose recovery compared to the single stage zinc chloride and sulfuric acid pretreatments, respectively. These results evidently support that the combined ZnCl-H2SO4 with enzymatic  pretreatment is an effective and feasible method for processing lignocellulosic biomass.