Maria Thereza Gamberini received her Master’s and Doctoral degrees in Pharmacology from the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. She is currently Assistant Professor at Santa Casa de São Paulo Medical School, Brazil. She has experience in the field of Pharmacology of Natural Products with an emphasis on the pharmacological validation of plant extracts and the isolation and characterization of biomolecules of plant origin.
Sugarcane cultivation has advanced worldwide. In Brazil, data on the 2013-2014 cropyields show that the area devoted to the cultivation of the plants was approximately 8 million hectares with a production of about 600 million tons intended mainly for obtaining sugar and ethanol. Due to advancements in biotechnology, the use of ethanol as a biofuel has already been well established. Several efforts have been made in order to use the agricultural waste from sugar cane, i.e., bagasse and straw. Currently, the sugarcane bagasse supply amounts to 20 million tons/month-this is the raw material used in the factories of this sector to generate heat, steam and energy in the production process. Straw has great potential for generating heat, electricity and producing cellulosic ethanol. In order to take full advantage of this plant, we are looking for new potentials; it may have as a source for new drugs or as raw material for the production of bio molecules with therapeutic purposes. Pharmacological tests revealed that aqueous extracts of the green leaves had an effect on the central nervous system in animals more specifically involving neural circuits linked to motor and cognitive processes. Considering the existence of various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson\'s disease, Huntington\'s disease and schizophrenia, the search for new psychoactive agents is essential. Therefore, the pharmacological validation of plant species such as sugarcane which has been used for decades by the population offers new perspectives on the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of serious diseases.
Beata Cwalina has almost 40 years of Research Experience in studying the fundamental and applied aspects of metals bioleaching from various materials, biocorrosion of metals and biodeterioration of non-metallic materials as well as the modification possibilities of connective tissues for implantology. She has published over 270 papers, many in reputed journals and has been serving as a Reviewer. She had been a Member of scientific councils of four universities. She has supervised 5 PhD students and has reviewed many PhD, Associate Professor and Professorship theses.
Titanium alloys are widely used for many medical and technical applications. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) such as these belonging to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans species may cause corrosion of various metals including titanium and its alloys. These bacteria can form biofilm on the metal surface. Titanium and its alloys may be colonized by microorganisms including SRB and corrosion under their metabolic activity may occur. Up today, there are no satisfactory results of removal already developed mature biofilms. There is a need for research on the possibility to control biofilm formation on titanium. High surface energy connected with the alloy composition, negative charge and high surface roughness of titanium alloys may promote the adhesion of bacteria. In order to prevent biofilm formation, modifications to the titanium alloys composition and surface character must be carried out for elimination the effects of these properties. In this study, the influence of the titanium alloy type on the biofilm formation by D. desulfuricans bacteria has been studied. The biofilms formation by D. desulfuricans bacteria on grinded, electropolished and anodized surfaces of three titanium alloys: NiTi, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb have been investigated during the metal samples immersion in various simulated physiological solutions (artificial saliva, artificial saliva under inflammatory conditions). Based on results of microscopic and biochemical investigations, the influence of the alloy type (with different chemical composition) on the biofilm formation by D. desulfuricans bacteria has been detected.